problems babies and teenagers
- Olga A., just to you for consultation parents brought quite crumbs. Is it possible that these infants may be problems with pressure?
- Arterial hypertension (persistent elevationblood pressure) occurs at any age - both in children and adolescents. However, the causes of high blood pressure levels are usually different depending on the age of the children.
For babies from birth to one year oftenmeets symptomatic (secondary) hypertension. It is caused by some other pathology. It may be endocrine disorders, diseases of the cardiovascular system, congenital renal anomaly.
In older children the most oftenrecorded Essential (primary) hypertension. It is an independent disease, in which the main symptom is high blood pressure.
Often, it is associated with adolescent periodsexual maturation (puberty). Most often seen in children who are overweight or, on the contrary, in the high teens and well muscled.
- In adults, normal pressure is considered to be 120 over 80. And for children other criteria?
- For each age period is characterized by alevel as the systolic (upper) and diastolic (lower) pressure. For instance, newborns have a systolic blood pressure level of 60 - 65 mm Hg.
By the end of the first month is raised to 80 - 85millimeters of mercury. A year to 95 - 110 (upper) 45 - 50 (bottom). From one to five years in healthy children, it practically does not change and remains at the same level.
After five years, there is a continuous steady growthblood pressure: systolic blood pressure in boys increased annually by two millimeters of mercury, the girls - one millimeter. Diastolic blood pressure, regardless of sex increases every year by 0.5 millimeters of mercury.
- What happens to the pressure in adolescence?
- Start of puberty is a powerfulfactor influencing the level of blood pressure. Teens who have early puberty is accompanied by intensive physical development, have higher blood pressure than their peers.
- Now it is very often talk about high loadsstudents. Children spend a lot of time for lessons, rent a huge number of complex tests often worry, almost from the first class work at the computer. Can such a tense nervous-life lead to high blood pressure?
- Certainly, the intense load, constantpsycho-emotional stress is one of the risk factors. In addition, the factors predisposing to the development of hypertension, are overweight, unhealthy diet, smoking, lack of exercise, heredity, burdened by hypertension.
By the way, the risk of developing hypertension inchildren of 15 - 57 percent if one parent suffers from this disease. And if it appears, and the father and the mother, the risk rises to 44 - 73 percent.
- What is the danger of a high pressure for children and adolescents?
- Everything depends on the cause, against which itappeared. If stable high blood pressure arises because of the different pathologies, but in future it may lead to the progression of the underlying disease and the development of complications.
At the same time, high blood pressure leads to violation of the quality of life in children and adolescents. They are worse in school, do not tolerate exercise, enough quick-tempered and conflict.
Every third young patient in the futurepossible formation of hypertension. Therefore, timely prevention and treatment of hypertension in childhood and adolescence will improve the state of health and their life expectancy in the future.
- What are the symptoms and complaints should alert parents?
- Some children complain of dizziness,headaches, especially in the morning, intermittent stabbing pain in the heart of nature. With a stable level of blood pressure may be bleeding from the nose, fainting. Do not leave these signals without attention and be sure to show the child to the doctor.
But very often hypertension in children andadolescents are asymptomatic. In this case, you can detect abnormalities only at a timely examination, that is, measuring the blood pressure.
- Perhaps the parents, especially very young children, and would never measure the pressure kids.
- One of the directions of the national project"Health" - prevention of hypertension in adults. But pediatricians do not remain aloof from this problem. When scheduled medical examinations, and when visiting the district pediatrician should always be measured blood pressure.
If it is increased, then after 10 - 14 days old babyare invited to re-inspection to confirm high blood pressure numbers. Often secondary hypertension detected in hospitals where hospitalized children with other disorders. For example, kidney diseases, endocrine system.
If the child is not measured by the pressure, we recommendparents to pay attention to the condition of the baby. This allows time to notice symptoms that can lead to increased levels of blood pressure. Such children can be complete. They tire quickly. Parents should be alerted excessive sweating and general anxiety attacks in children.
- Can parents measure their own blood pressure for children?
- Of course, especially if in the family, amongrelatives who have high blood pressure or physical examination in the clinic, kindergarten, school, child already identified elevated blood pressure. For this purpose, it is desirable to have a blood pressure monitor cuff with children. Beginning in adolescence and adult can use the cuff.
- If you are constantly observed elevated pressure in a child, where to go?
- It is necessary to make an appointment with a pediatric cardiologist. Prevention and treatment of hypertension in children are more effective than in adults.
- What would you suggest for prevention?
- It is necessary to organize a proper family,balanced diet. It is desirable that the house has formed a healthy habit nedosalivat food. Excessive intake of salt - one of the main factors of hypertension.
Include in the diet of the child more fruits andvegetables, lean meats and fish, dairy products and a variety of cereals. Preventive measures can be safely attributed physical activity, not smoking, drinking beer and other alcoholic beverages.
• In the first half of the day, no earlier than 35 - 40 minutes of physical education lessons, tests, food intake, exposure to cold.
• In a comfortable atmosphere, after five minutes' rest.
• A child up to two years, the pressure is measured lying down. Older children - in a sitting position, lying down or standing up, as you wish. If the child is sitting, he must rely on his chair. In no case do not cross legs. During the procedure, the child should not talk to others.
• As a rule, the measurement is performed on the right arm. Bent at the elbow, it should be on the table, palm up.
• The cuff is superimposed on the shoulder, while the middle of the cuff should be at heart level, and its lower edge - two centimeters above the inner folds of the elbow.
• Repeated triple measurements are made at intervals of two to three minutes.
Then it makes sense to follow simple rules.
• Do not save time for sleep. Taps for him not less than seven hours. If you want to take a nap during the day, do not resist - a rest.
• Each day, choose from a flat walk. At least 35 minutes - 40. Even if not in the mood and bad weather.
• Eat rationally. Best four or five times a day. Just before going to bed is not zealous. Borscht, soups and other soups, yogurt, kefir and other dairy products, jellies, compotes, juices, vegetables should be on your desk. But coffee, strong tea and soda are not particularly lean. By the way, preparing for exams - not a reason to arrange a holiday stomach.
• Give up smoking. And it is better not to try this bad idea. Know that there is no safe cigarette.
• Do not consume beer and other alcohol. One gram of pure alcohol contains seven calories. Why do you need the extra calories?
• Take care of physical activity. If you had not gone to the gym, do not for one day to set records. The load should be increased gradually. Swim, cycling and inline skating. The best option - on a daily basis and at least 30 minutes. And still find time (about a couple of times a week), volleyball, football, basketball, tennis, instead of watching cartoons and serials. Keep in mind: moderate fiznagruzki lead in the blood pressure back to normal.
• Learn to resist stress.
• Listen and observe doctor's advice.