Blood test. How to prepare your child?

Content


Often, this simple analysis is presenttest for both the young patient, and for parents, medical personnel. At the same time, to properly prepare the analysis, it is possible to significantly reduce the number of children's fears and tears, and most importantly - to obtain reliable data about the health of the child.

A blood test is an important diagnostictests to objectively assess many of the processes occurring in the body of the child. Thus, elevated levels of white blood cells or erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) may indicate the presence of inflammation. If the child is still very young and can not tell what was wrong with him, a blood test becomes an indispensable assistant doctor in making a diagnosis and appropriate treatment appointment.


Preparation for analysis

Technique of taking capillary blood in newborns
Going to the clinic scares almost every child, so prepare for the analysis needed in advance. In addition, failure to comply with some of the recommendations may affect the accuracy of the study.

One day before the child's blood is necessary to limit the taking in physical activities, sports. In the 12 hours before the delivery of the analysis should not be taken for food.

On the day of analysis in the clinic to come early in the morning: it is recommended to donate blood from 7 to 10 am. Immediately prior to analysis, for 10-15 minutes, the child must be at rest and warmth.

Before the procedure, you need to tell your doctor ornurse what medications the child takes. At the time of blood draw parents to stay with the child. The maximum amount of blood that can be taken at the same time for laboratory tests must be calculated based on the age and weight of the child, his anatomical features 1.


Capillary blood: for and against

If necessary, a small study(0.5 ml) of blood volume is traditionally used capillary blood coming from a small puncture on the finger or heel. The latter option will suit most young patients under the age of 1 year old and weighing less than 9 kg 2. The heel of many vessels and few nerve endings,that allows you to quickly and painlessly get material for research. For these purposes, it is recommended to use the side surface of the heel of the child, and to improve blood flow better heel heated to 34 ° C. To do this, you can use a warm towel or warm water-filled rubber glove. But if a child has poor circulation, poor blood clotting, swelling or damaged skin on the heel, it is not recommended taking blood from the heel 3.

The area of ​​the puncture technique and taking capillary blood in children under 1 yearIn capillary blood collection has a number of drawbacks. This is due, primarily, with the very composition of the blood: Capillary blood has a lower concentration of calcium, potassium and total protein but a higher concentration of glucose and hemoglobin

4. As a rule, the taking of capillary bloodanalysis of the sample may also enter the residue antiseptic (alcohol) and tissue fluid that substantially reduces the quality of the sample and affect the accuracy of laboratory research.

Distrust capillary blood for analysis due to the fact that in this case the probability of errors is three times higher than when taking venous blood 5.. In the process of taking a child of capillary blood may occur when making painful puncture of the injection needle, pressure on the finger, or the use of repeated punctures large lancets, especially in case of poor blood flow.

Capillary blood in patients older than 1 yearit is recommended to take from the side surfaces of the middle or ring finger. As with taking blood from a heel, finger surface before making a puncture needed a little heat. This will increase blood flow and avoid excessive pressure on the finger when taking blood from a finger 6.

Given these circumstances, doctors of Western countriestoday virtually abandoned the taking of capillary blood. However, if the doctor considers holding capillary blood test necessary, it is possible to improve the accuracy and reduce the pain. Thus, using bifurcated, automatic lancet puncture can be done at a fixed depth (0, 85 mm to 1 mm) 7. For these analyzes, use special microtubes with reagents and collectors to collect blood 8.

The area of ​​the puncture technique and taking capillary blood in children older than 1 year


What is the analysis of venous blood?

Blood from a vein provides a moreobjective data on the state of health of the patient. Venous blood from the children taken from the median cubital vein, lateral saphenous vein in the arm, the veins of arms and legs, great saphenous vein and cranial veins (the youngest). You can do this in two ways: open and closed.

Today, in most cases take nursesvein blood from a syringe, cannula or a tube by gravity. This was marked by numerous cases of re-use of needles and infection to patients and staff. The very open blood sampling technology is also far from perfect - in this case, there is an increased risk of blood cell destruction during its transfer to the tube. Moreover, glass vials are broken and the blood - soak tampon, which tube is closed. This unsafe practice, which is fraught with high risk of infection nurses and laboratory personnel, as well as the spread of blood-borne infections.

The best option for getting bloodResearch today is the so-called closed method using vacuum systems. This is a modern medical device, which allows to avoid errors often occur when you use an open systems. Closed system consists of a vacuum tube and needle holder. Tube allows you to gain the necessary amount of blood, and specially sharpened needle with a special silicone coating is easily penetrates into the skin without causing pain.

After entering the tube blood is stored securely in a test tube, which eliminates the possibility of loss of material and the need to go with the child to re-analysis.

In order to avoid taking excessthe volume of blood and make blood collection procedure as painless as possible, experts recommend the use of pediatric vacuum tubes, as well as the butterfly needle catheter short length and small diameter of the needle and the transparent camera that allows you to visualize the time of entering the needle into the vein.

The procedure of taking blood closed methodsimple and does not cause pain. In the analysis of this type of nurse will need about 30 seconds - during which time the child does not even have time to get scared, and, therefore, parents and medical personnel do not have to waste time on explanations and persuasion in the future: "It does not hurt." Thus, the diagnosis will be carried out quickly and accurately, and the little patient - delivered from the fear that often accompanies a person throughout his life.



1 Recommendations for taking a blood venous and capillary blood in children and neonates // Bulletin of the Association of Russian nurses. 2014. pp 20-22.


2 Noskin NA Recommendations for blood sampling in neonates // Bulletin of the Association of Russian nurses. 2013. 36 pp.


3 Collection of materials for the organization of the nurse neonatal department // St. Petersburg: Ramsay, 2013. S. 4.


4 Noskin NA Recommendations for blood sampling in neonates // Bulletin of the Association of Russian nurses. 2013. 36 pp.


5 Skorohodova TG, Matushkina SV Grishchenko DA Modern technologies for the qualitative analysis of capillary blood // Clinical and laboratory consultation. № 1 (45). February 2013. 34 pp.


6 Recommendations for taking a blood venous and capillary blood in children and neonates // Bulletin of the Association of Russian nurses. 2014. pp 20-22.


7 Recommendations for taking a blood venous and capillary blood in children and neonates // Bulletin of the Association of Russian nurses. 2014. pp 20-22.


8 Recommendations for taking a blood venous and capillary blood in children and neonates // Bulletin of the Association of Russian nurses. 2014. pp 20-22.

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