Histology in breast cancer
The main method of diagnosis of cancer breast -histological examination of tissue samples obtained by biopsy or during surgery. Depending on the histological analysis of the data selected by the tactics and methods of treatment is determined by the forecast.
Histology detects breast cancer:
- histology: ductal, lobular, inflammation, medullary, papillary, colloid. Each species has its own characteristics;
- the degree of differentiation. Cancer cells that have a high degree of differentiation, have properties typical of normal breast cells. The smaller of these properties is a cancer cell, the less differentiated cancer. Poorly differentiated cancers are difficult to treat, have a worse prognosis, more relapses give;
- the presence of estrogen receptor (ER +),progesterone receptor (PR +), epidermal growth factor type 2 (HER2). A study carried out by immunohistochemistry. The presence of cancer cells to these receptors worsens the prognosis and increases the frequency of relapses, reduces the effectiveness of treatment. Determination of receptor status is necessary to select the correct treatment strategy (more aggressive), determine the duration of chemistry and radiation therapy, hormonal therapy of cancer destination;
- Nuclear pleomorphism - core characteristics of cancercells (size, color intensity, heterogeneity), reflecting an intense expression of genes. Increase value - an unfavorable prognostic sign;
- the number of mitotic figures. It shows the amount of dividing cancer cells. The higher the setting, the more aggressive and rapidly progressing cancer;
- molecular subtype. Depending on the presence of specific genes are several types of breast cancer. It is important to choose the right tactics treatment.
Histological analysis of the breast cancer holds the doctor-pathologist. Focus on research gives mammalogy oncologist or oncologist.