The concept of childhood obesity
The medical sources obesity is determinedas the accumulation of excess body fat mass. About obesity can say, if body weight is more than 25% fat in boys and more than 32% in girls. Although childhood obesity is often defined as a breach weight / height ratio of greater than ideal body weight by 20%, more accurate measure of completeness should be considered as skinfold thickness.
Not all chubby babies laterturn into full of children, and not all children grow up stall in adults suffering from obesity. However, with age, the fullness is amplified in both men and women, and there is a considerable likelihood that obesity appeared in the early childhood, will accompany a lifetime.
Completeness and obesity cause a lot of babyproblems. Besides the fact that childhood obesity threatens to worsen with age, it is a major cause of childhood hypertension, associated with diabetes II degree, increases the risk of coronary heart disease, increases the pressure on the joints, bearing the weight load, lowers self-esteem and affects relationships with peers. According to some experts, the most serious consequences of obesity are just social and psychological problems.
Causes of obesity in childhood
As obesity in adults, children obesitydue to a whole set of reasons, but the most important of them - the mismatch of energy produced (calories derived from food) and wastes (calories burned during the primary metabolism and physical activity) by the body. Childhood obesity often develops as a result of a complex interaction of dietary, psychological, genetic and physiological factors.
Obesity most prone children, parentswhich also suffer from overweight. This phenomenon can be explained by heredity or modeling parental eating behaviors that indirectly affects the energy balance of the child. Half of parents of primary school pupils have never engaged in sports and avoid strenuous exercise.
Treatment options for childhood obesity
The aim of obesity treatment programs and childrenAdolescents rarely is weight loss. Rather, they are focused on the slowing down or stopping the addition of the weight, which should allow the child to eventually reach a normal weight. Earlier and correct interference is particularly important. There is strong evidence that food and physical behavior of adolescents and children is easier to correct than the behavior of adults. Developed three basic forms of intervention:
- physical activity
- nutrition and diet
- behavior modification
Compliance with the formal training program orincreasing physical activity, you can burn calories, increase energy consumption and maintain the acquired form. Most childhood obesity studies have shown that exercise does not bring tangible results, if not combined with other forms of interference, such as nutrition education and behavior change. However, fitness brings added health benefits. Even if the body fat and body weight of the child do not change after 50 minutes of aerobic exercise three times a week, such exercise improves blood lipid profiles and blood pressure.
Babies do not recommend fasting or excessivelimit the intake of calories. Such a treatment strategy can not only cause stress, but also adversely affect the growth of the child and his perception of "normal" food. Balanced diet with a moderate restriction of caloric intake, especially reduced-fat, successfully used for the treatment of childhood obesity. Also, do not neglect nutrition education. Diet combined with fitness - effective strategy for treating childhood obesity.
Many behavioral strategies are usedfor the treatment of obesity in adults, and are successfully used for the treatment of children and adolescents. This is primarily self-control and maintenance of dietary diary, slowing food absorption rate, time limit and place of food consumption, the introduction of prizes and incentive prizes for the results achieved. Especially effective strategy of behavior with the child's parents.
Preventing childhood obesity
Obesity is easier to prevent than to treat. Preventing obesity depends largely on the education of parents. My mother should feed the baby breast, to be able to determine when the baby is satisfied, as well as not to hurry with the introduction in the diet of baby solid food. When the child gets older, parents need to provide a proper diet, choose low-calorie foods, try to avoid the harmful fast food, develop the skills of physical activity, as well as to regulate television viewing. If preventive measures are ineffective or can not completely overcome the influence of heredity, education priority should be the development of a child's self-esteem and self-confidence.