Infection by cytomegalovirus
Cytomegalovirus Infection occurs throughsemen, cervical mucus channel, saliva, breast milk and blood. Infants infected from their mothers during birth or through breast milk. Children become infected from each other in kindergarten (usually through saliva). Adults often become infected through sexual contact and kissing.
It is worth noting that this virus is not very contagious. For infection usually requires prolonged, close contact or multiple contacts.
The prevalence of cytomegalovirus
This virus is widespread among people. Antibodies to cytomegalovirus detected in 10-15% of adolescents. By the age of 35 years, these antibodies are detected already at 50% of the people.
Symptoms of cytomegalovirus
In people with normal immune cytomegalovirus in most cases are asymptomatic, without causing any harm.
Sometimes people with normal immunity, this viruscausing the so-called mononucleosis syndrome. This syndrome occurs after 20-60 days after infection and lasts 2-6 weeks. It is manifested high fever, chills, fatigue, malaise and headache. In most cases, mononucleosis syndrome ends complete recovery.
In people with weakened immune systems(HIV-infected; chemotherapy for malignant neoplasms; immunosuppressive therapy in transplantation of internal organs), Cytomegalovirus causes severe disease (eye disease, lung, digestive system and brain), which may lead to death.
Upon infection of the fetus during pregnancy (but notduring delivery) may develop congenital cytomegalovirus infection. The latter leads to severe diseases and central nervous system (mental retardation, hearing loss). In 20-30% of cases, the baby dies. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection occurs almost exclusively in children whose mothers during pregnancy are infected with CMV for the first time.
Risk of cytomegalovirus
Thus, cytomegalovirus poses a risk in two cases:
- in individuals with weakened immune systems;
- during infection of the fetus during pregnancy, which occurs when the mother's infection during pregnancy.
Diagnosis of cytomegalovirus
Detection of the virus itself (sowing, antigen detection, PCR) is of limited value. The main method of diagnosis of CMV - detection of antibodies to it.
This single definition of antibody titer does not distinguish current infection by undergoing. On activation of the virus indicates an increase in antibody titer in 4 or more times.
Treatment of cytomegalovirus
Immediately it should be noted that none of the current treatments can not completely get rid of the virus.
If asymptomatic infections in individuals withnormal immunity treatment is not necessary. Therefore, detection of cytomegalovirus or antibodies to it in patients with normal immunity is not an indication for treatment.
The effectiveness of immunotherapy (tsikloferon, polyoxidonium and so on. D.) Has not been proved. The use of immunotherapy in this infection is usually caused by not medical, and commercial considerations.
Treatment of cytomegalovirus in patients with impairedimmunity is reduced to a long reception of antiviral drugs (ganciclovir, foscarnet, cidofovir). In other forms of the disease (mononucleosis syndrome, congenital cytomegalovirus infection) the effectiveness of antiviral drugs is not proven.
Prevention of cytomegalovirus
Condoms reduce the risk of infection during sexual intercourse.
Prevention of congenital cytomegalovirus infection is reduced to the abandonment of casual sex during pregnancy.