STD: revealing secrets

Content

  • Old and new
  • How big is the risk of infection?
  • The more dangerous STD?
  • Analysis: translate from Russian to health
  • What TORCH-infection?


  • Old and new

    For STDs include not only syphilis and gonorrhea, butand many other diseases - only about twenty. What unites them all a single transmission path. However, not for all STD infection occurs only through sexual contact. Currently, all STDs are divided into two groups - the "classic" or sexually transmitted diseases, as well as "new".

    The classic STD include:

    • syphilis
    • gonorrhea
    • venereal lymphogranuloma
    • chancroid
    • donovanosis.

    By "new" STDs are:

    • chlamydia
    • mycoplasmosis
    • ureaplasmosis
    • bacterial vaginitis
    • trichomoniasis
    • hepatitis B and C
    • candidiasis
    • gardnerellez
    • genital herpes
    • HPV infection
    • HIV infection.


    How big is the risk of infection?

    Diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, toToday is one of the most common. The highest incidence occurs in developing countries, including in Russia. At the same time there is a high level of not only the "new" sexually transmitted diseases, but also classic. When unprotected sex with a casual partner of the risk of infection may reach 70-80%.


    The more dangerous STD?

    STD dangerous, especially its complications, namely:

    • inflammatory diseases of the uterus and appendages
    • anogyny
    • male infertility
    • prostatitis
    • epididymitis (inflammation of the epididymis)
    • neoplasms of genital organs (cervical cancer, penile cancer, cancer of the vulva).


    Analysis: translate from Russian to health

    RPR
    Diagnosis of syphilis - reaction with cardiolipin antigen (screening).

    TPHA
    Diagnosis of syphilis - treponemal reaction with antigen (confirmatory methods).

    anti-HAV amounts.
    Diagnosis of hepatitis A - total antibody (IgM + IgG) - indicate adjourned or acute disease.

    anti-HAV IgM
    Hepatitis A. Diagnosing only acute illness.

    HBsAg
    Hepatitis B surface antigen - evidence of infection with hepatitis B.

    HBeAg
    Transformed nuclear antigen - a sign of active hepatitis B virus replication and its high infectiousness.

    anti-HBc amounts.
    Total antibody to hepatitis B core antigen - evidence of any adjourned or acute disease.

    anti-HBc IgM
    Antibodies to nuclear antigen of hepatitis B indicate the presence of an acute disease.

    anti-Hbe
    Antibody to HBeAg - indicate the presence of acute hepatitis B and stored in small amounts over a long period of time after the disease.

    anti-HBs
    Antibodies to HBsAg - show immunity strength (how strong it is), give the answer to the question about the necessity of vaccination against hepatitis B.

    anti-HCV
    Diagnosis of hepatitis C - total antibody (IgM + IgG) - indicate adjourned or acute disease.

    anti-Toxo IgG
    The antibodies to the causative agent of toxoplasmosis - indicate an illness.

    anti-Toxo IgM
    The antibodies to the causative agent of toxoplasmosis - indicate the presence of an acute disease.

    anti-CMV
    Antibodies against cytomegalovirus - indicate an illness.

    IgG anti-CMV IgM
    Antibodies against cytomegalovirus - indicate the presence of an acute disease.

    anti-HSV IgG
    The antibodies to the herpes virus - testify to an illness (this is only qualitative response).

    anti-HSV IgM
    The antibodies to the herpes virus - testify to the presence of an acute disease (only qualitative response).

    anti-Chlamydia tr. IgG
    The antibodies to the pathogen Chlamydia - indicate an illness.

    anti-Chlamydia tr. IgA
    The antibodies to the pathogen Chlamydia - indicate the activation of the disease.

    anti-Rubella IgG
    Antibodies to rubella pathogen - indicate an illness.

    anti-Rubella IgM
    Antibodies to rubella pathogen - indicate the presence of an acute disease.

    So:

    In determining the IgG and IgM antibodies to the virus in the blood serum of the results of the following options:

    + IgG, -IgM - Certificate of asymptomatic healthy carrier (up to 30% of the adult population). This combination of antibodies in the blood of pregnant women is not a threat to the fetus.

    -IgG, + IgM or + IgG, + IgM - Primary infection, acute orsubclinical. During pregnancy, this situation points to the possibility of intrauterine infection. In doubtful cases it is necessary to repeat the analysis after 7-14 days to confirm.

    -IgG, -IgM - The absence of infection. Pregnant women with this result should be included in the risk group and examined every trimester.


    What TORCH-infection?

    This is a group of diseases that are consideredpotentially harmful to child development. Title TORCH formed by the initial letters in the Latin names of agents of these diseases: Toxoplasma, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes (Toxoplasmosis, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes).

    The frequency of these infections in adults and childrenranges. So, cytomegalovirus infection in pregnant women is found in 13-28% (up to 70-96% of cases), genital herpes - from 7 to 35-47%, chlamydia - from 10 to 30-40%. chlamydia transmission probability of the child is 40-70%, and at least 67% of children at birth may be infected with chlamydia.

    Laboratory screening for TORCH-infectiona woman needs to be done for 2-3 months before planned pregnancy, because in this case will be able to take appropriate therapeutic or preventive measures, as well as in the future need to compare the results of studies with results to pregnancy examinations during pregnancy.

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