Chlamydia is an infectious disease,developing after the introduction of a specific pathogen into the body - chlamydia. Chlamydial infection of the genitourinary organs is an infectious disease caused by certain serotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis, sexually transmitted and affects mainly the urogenital system of a person. Infection occurs from people who are carriers of chlamydia or patients with erased signs of the disease. The main “storehouse" of chlamydia in a woman’s body is the cervical canal. The most common chlamydia among men and women who have an active sex life, having promiscuous sexual intercourse. Chlamydia infection often accompanies other sexually transmitted infections, such as trichomoniasis and gonorrhea. The manifestations of these infections come to the fore, masking the symptoms of chlamydia.
Manifestations of chlamydia
The incubation period for the disease ranges from 5up to 30 days. During this period, there is the reproduction and accumulation of chlamydia in the mucosa of the genitals. The favorite habitat of the pathogen in genital organs of women - it is the urethra (urethra), cervix (the cervix) and cervical mucosa. The manifestations of chlamydial infection, tend to be very scarce. Very rarely, the disease begins acutely and manifests the appearance of itching, burning sensation in the vulva, painful urination, muco-purulent discharge from the vagina and pulling dull pain in the lower abdomen. Most chlamydia is hidden, dim over. Women are concerned only minor itching and burning sensation during urination, sometimes she said a small amount of discharge muddy mucous character. Finally, the anxiety may be absent altogether.
Externally, inflammation of the urethra is manifested by rednessmucous membrane around the external opening of the urethra. The vaginal mucosa is often not involved in the inflammatory process. The cervical canal becomes inflamed, its mucous membrane becomes edematous, red. The lesion extends to the cervix itself and cervicitis develops. As a result of long-term chlamydial inflammation, true cervical erosion occurs. The cervix, due to tissue changes caused by inflammation, increases in size. After some time, inflammatory erosion is replaced by pseudo-erosion, that is, a process when changes in the cervix already reflect restructuring in its structure.
With prolonged existence of infection and weakthe defenses of a woman’s body, a chlamydial infection can affect the mucous membrane of the uterine cavity. This is facilitated by intrauterine interventions, prolonged use of the spiral, a general weakening of the body as a result of other diseases. As a result, endometritis develops, which differs from endometritis of a nonspecific nature only in the weariness and lack of expression of manifestations. A woman is disturbed: general malaise, minor pulling pains in the lower abdomen, shortening of the menstrual cycle, spotting discharge from the genital tract between menstruation, profuse and painful menstruation.
If the inflammation captures the fallopian tubes, theto manifestations caused by inflammation of the endometrium, added another and irregularities in the fallopian tubes. Chlamydia salpingitis, inflammation of the fallopian tubes, rarely leads to complete loss of patency. Infertility for chlamydia is often the consequence of violations of their contractile ability, ie the ability to push the egg into the uterus. With the same connected and frequent cases of ectopic pregnancy in women with chlamydia. In addition, inflammation of the lining of the uterus interferes with the normal attachment of the fertilized ovum to the endometrium, that is, directly impede the development of pregnancy. If pregnancy does occur, there is a real threat of an interruption in the early stages because of the inferiority of the endometrium. Changes in cervical mucus, resulting cervical inflammation, inhibit the penetration of sperm into the uterus and thus prevent fertilization.
In addition to inflammation of genitals chlamydiacan cause a number of other organ damage. In particular, we will focus on the most common diseases - a chlamydial conjunctivitis and Reiter's disease.
Chlamydial conjunctivitis is interesting in that heIt is sometimes the only manifestation of chlamydial infection at all. Most often, of infection of the genital organs in the eye it is carried out by contact, ie by means of dirty hands, or oral sex. eye disease is usually unilateral. Chlamydial conjunctivitis manifested by edema, redness of the eye (conjunctiva), the advent of muco-purulent discharge from the eyes, especially noticeable in the morning. Current conjunctivitis long, within 2-3 months. It is a long course of the disease should touch up on the idea of the presence in the body of chlamydial infection.
Reiter's disease - another consequence ofChlamydia infection in the sphere of non-sexual organs. For the disease characterized by a triad manifestations: urethritis (inflammation of the mucous membrane of the urethra), conjunctivitis (inflammation of the mucous membranes of the eyes), and arthritis (joint inflammation). Urethritis is manifested by itching, burning and pain during urination. Conjunctivitis - swelling, redness, sharp pain, purulent discharge from the eye. Arthritis affects mainly the large joints of the feet, such as the knee and ankle joints, and manifests itself by swelling, pain when moving. The current long-term Reiter's disease, with periods of exacerbation and rest.
Diagnosis of chlamydia
In a study of women with suspectedChlamydia often make smears of discharge from the vagina, cervix and external opening of the urethra followed by their research in the microbiological laboratory. Besides the material for analysis for chlamydia may be scraped from the cervix and urethra. However, this method only allows to assume the presence of chlamydial infection.
To diagnose chlamydia can be usedand the culture method, when combined biological material plated on a special medium for subsequent determination of the type of grown microorganism and its sensitivity to antibiotics. In addition, studies are often conducted in biological fluids by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), which reveals the presence of antibodies to chlamydia, and PCR (polymerase chain reaction), which can detect the presence of Chlamydia genome.
The therapy involves the treatment of chlamydia and womenher sexual partner. Treatment of women is long and complicated and is carried out at the antenatal clinic. A prerequisite to successful treatment is sexual rest. Appointed by a combination of special protivohlamidiynyh drugs. After completing the course of treatment carried out repeated research for Chlamydia. If the pathogen is not found - a woman is considered to be cured. In case of detection of the pathogen treatment continues.