There are only three ways of HIV transmission: sexual, through the bloodstream and from a HIV-positive mother to child.
The sexual mode of transmission is possible through sexual contact
without using a condom - containing HIV semen or vaginal
release into the blood through the mucosa.
The virus can be transmitted through the blood in the following cases:
- the sharing of needles, syringes and other injecting equipment;
- when using non-sterile tattooing and body piercing;
- blood transfusion containing the virus.
The virus can be transmitted from mother to child:
- during pregnancy (placenta);
- at birth (through contact with the mother's blood);
- in the process of breast feeding (through breast milk).
HIV is transmitted during sex from contact liquid containing the virus -
blood, semen or vaginal secretions - with mucous membranes
(Penis, the rectum, vagina, and to a lesser extent, mouth) or
due to their direct contact with the bloodstream (if
damage). To prevent transmission of the virus is possible, avoid contact with
listed fluids. The most common way of
to achieve is to use a condom.
The most common HIV transmission during intimacy occurs when the
virus containing vaginal fluid or semen in the mouth, vagina,
rectum or penis. In this situation, containing the virus
Liquid contact with the mucosa. They are subject to viruses
immune system attack, and transported to nearby lymph
nodes, where getting on mucous germs usually destroyed. but
feature of HIV is that it affects the immune namely
system, which includes and lymph nodes. Therefore, the protection does not work
and developing HIV infection.
With intensive sex mucosa and thin skin of the genital organs
often injured. Through abrasions and cracks open the way for
direct contact with blood. This increases the risk of transmission
virus. Sores, pimples on mucous membranes (resulting
a variety of sexually transmitted diseases, especially gonorrhea, etc.) can
play a similar role, contributing to the input or output
HIV-infected blood through these gates through sexual contact.
In practical terms, this means that the transmission of the virus
contribute to: concomitant genital diseases
high-intensity sex without sufficient preparation, ejaculation
directly to partner.
Reduce the risk of transmission can be avoiding trauma during sex
(Using a lubricant), refusing to Ejaculation partner. As
the content of the virus in saliva is insignificant, its transmission through oral
Sex is possible only in one direction, with the sperm during ejaculation in the mouth.
Commercially available solutions and ointments for the local "disinfection" after
sexual contact kill HIV only in laboratory experiments.
Valid data that they eliminate the virus in vivo
no. Many such solutions, especially those containing chlorine compounds,
cause genital irritation and ulcers, which, on the contrary,
can become an open gate for the virus. On the other hand, these
agents effective against sexually transmitted diseases, so that they
use can be regarded as the work on reducing the risk of transmission
Since HIV in saliva is too small, the virus is not transmitted through kissing.
Throughout the long history of medical observation a single fact
HIV transmission is not registered with a kiss. Sometimes it is said that the risk of
is the presence of sores and ulcers in the mouth and on the lips, but in this
transmission case must have each of the partners
an open bleeding wound in the oral cavity. intact skin
is an insurmountable barrier to the virus. Therefore, HIV is not transmitted
through the arms. HIV can live outside the body only a few minutes, so
and traces of the droplets of body fluids, for example on bed
underwear, are not dangerous.
It should be noted that the risk of virus transmission depends entirely on
the circumstances of the sexual encounter. Is it "accidentally"
link or "love" does not matter. when multiple
contact probability of transmission increases proportionally.
Injecting drug use
When injections of drugs or, in other words, the use of injection
substance into the body may get a certain amount of
blood containing HIV. The used syringe or needle is always
blood, in which the virus can survive for several days. Even
traces of blood may be sufficient for transmission.
Therefore, the most effective way to prevent transmission of the virus that
by - individual use only sterile disposable
injecting equipment. It is important to understand that we are talking not only about
syringe with a needle, and all things that are in contact with psychoactive
substance after boiling the solution.
The risk of transmission of the virus occurs when you use borrowed earlier
Used needles and syringes. Dangerous drugs are buying an already
filled syringe and the distribution of matter by "threading" (when
solution is introduced from one syringe into another through hole is removed by
needle or pulled out of the piston).
The probability of transmission during a significant coinjection
dependent on the degree of purification of the syringe after use and first
amount of virus in the blood remaining in the syringe. There are significant
evidence that the triple washing clean water syringe clears
it sufficiently unlikely to be considered statistically -
if not impossible - its content of HIV.
In addition to the syringe, HIV transmission can provide a common spoon,
cotton filters and water used for dissolution psychoactive
substance or rinsing injection equipment. application
separate cotton filter and unused water allow to exclude
transmission of the virus at this stage. Spoons can be sterilized by calcining
on an open fire.
It is important to remember that HIV transmission via injecting equipment
It can occur not only during the joint use
substance, but also in the process of division into dosage psychoactive
substances at various stages of their proliferation.
It is believed that HIV can penetrate into a psychotropic agent in
during its manufacture through various devices and containers
Transfusion, filtering and mixing the ingredients as well as through
injecting equipment, which product is selected from the container
sample. However, the facts, including laboratory results,
say that even if it enters the blood psychoactive substance
containing the virus, HIV loses activity by heating and boiling
solution of the drug in the preparation.
Statistics prove that the conduct of syringe exchange programs
It reduces the likelihood of the spread of the virus immunodeficiency. We in
country where these programs are not common, syringes nevertheless always
you can buy in any pharmacy, including the clock. They are inexpensive
(Much cheaper than the dose of any psychoactive substance) and
From mother to child
HIV can be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth and
breastfeeding. At each of these stages this probability
can be significantly reduced. In pregnancy, the risk of transmission of the virus can be
reduced if the mother will take special drugs. transfer
the virus during childbirth can be avoided by using special methods
obstetrics. Breastfeeding should be replaced by artificial.
These actions may reduce the risk of transmission from mother to child before
3-8 percent. Therefore, pregnant women and women planning
have a baby, it is important to know their HIV status.
During pregnancy, the blood of the child and the mother does not mix, but between
parent organisms and the fetus, the placenta, there is a constant exchange
various substances. In this way the virus can get to the child.
Modern methods of treatment of HIV infection can achieve reduction
the amount of virus in the mother's body to almost zero. Therefore, when
correctly matched the risk of HIV transmission to the child medication,
being in the womb, is greatly reduced. Internationally recognized
term drug scheme, allowing to control the virus,
appointed from 36 weeks of pregnancy and until the delivery.
At birth the child passes through the mother's genital tract, contacting with
mucous membranes. A virus that is contained in the vaginal secretions,
It can enter the body of the newborn. Also, frequent breaks generic
tract, microtrauma, crack. It can cause contact with
baby mother's blood containing the virus. Therefore, during childbirth
particularly important the presence of a doctor who specializes in HIV
(In some cities there are special hospital for HIV-infected
mothers). Certain techniques can reduce obstetric
the likelihood of virus transmission during delivery. Specifically, the technician must
conduct safe natural childbirth or offer a Caesarean section,
assign specific antiviral agents directly to the mother
during childbirth and the child within 72 hours after birth.
Breast milk contains HIV, which enters the body
a newborn if the mother does not give up breastfeeding.
Therefore, in order to avoid transmission infant must
go to the full feeding, ie feeding the baby
only breast-milk substitutes.