The concept of lymphomas
Lymphoma - Cancer is a diseaselymphatic tissue, characterized by enlarged lymph nodes and the defeat of various internal organs in which there is the uncontrolled accumulation of "tumor" cells.
Lymphocyte - white blood cell, which is the maincomponent of the immune system. In lymphoma, as a result of the unlimited division "tumor" count their descendants populate the lymph nodes and various internal organs, causing a violation of their normal work.
The term "lymphoma" refers to a large number ofdifferent kinds of diseases that are significantly different from each other in its manifestations and approaches to their treatment. All lymphomas are divided into 2 groups:
- Hodgkin's disease (also called Hodgkin's disease)
- non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
The main symptoms of lymphoma
Typically, the first symptom is a lymphomaa significant increase in the size of lymph nodes in the neck, armpits or groin. In this case, unlike infectious diseases, swollen lymph nodes are painless, their sizes do not decrease with time and treatment with antibiotics. Sometimes, due to the pressure from the enlarged liver, spleen and lymph nodes, there is a feeling of fullness in the stomach, difficulty breathing, arching pain in the lower back, feeling of pressure in the face or neck
Other symptoms occurring lymphoma are:
- increased body temperature
- weight loss
Varieties of lymphomas
The term non-Hodgkin's lymphomas representquite a large group of lymphomas that are not Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). The decision on the affiliation to the group's lymphoma Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma or Hodgkin's disease is made after histological examination of a sample of tissue biopsies. If the microscopic examination are specific for Hodgkin's disease cells Berezovsky-Sternberg-Reed, then diagnosed Hodgkin's disease. If these specific cells are not found, then the non-Hodgkin's lymphoma belongs to the group.
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma have many subspecies,which differ in histology, clinical manifestations and approaches to their treatment. Some types of lymphoma are slow and favorable course, sometimes a long time do not require special treatment. These are called indolent lymphoma. Several other lymphomas, in contrast, are characterized by rapid progression, a large number of symptoms and require immediate treatment. These aggressive lymphomas are called. There lymphoma with intermediate characteristics. The most common abnormal (wrong) lymphocyte growth begins in the lymph nodes, thus developing lymphoma classic version, accompanied by enlarged lymph nodes. However, there are lymphomas in which lymph nodes do not increase, because primary disease does not occur in the lymph node, and in different organs: spleen, stomach, intestine, lung, brain. These are called extranodal lymphoma that is located outside of the lymph nodes.
Stages of development of lymphomas
Determination lymphoma stage helps us to understandthe prevalence of the disease. This is important information to make the right decisions about the treatment program. Approaches to the treatment of primary (local) stages and common stages of lymphoma are usually different. In the election of the treatment program take into account not only the stage, but also many other factors:
- type of lymphoma
- results of additional research (immunology)
- the patient's condition and age
- accompanying illnesses
However, information about the stage of the disease is extremely important for the development of effective treatment programs.
The classification of lymphomas allocated four stagesdiseases which may be conventionally designated as local (local, limited) - the first and second stage common and - the third and fourth stages.
The first stage of lymphoma may be engaging inlymphoma process one lymph node region. The second stage - allowed involvement in the process of two or more lymph node regions on one side of the diaphragm (the diaphragm - a muscular sheet that separates the chest and abdominal cavity). The third stage allows the lymph nodes on both sides of the diaphragm. The fourth stage of the disease extends beyond the lymph nodes on the internal organs: heart, liver, kidneys, intestine, bone marrow.