Fractures of the cervical spine

Content

  • Fracture of first cervical vertebra
  • Fracture of second cervical vertebra
  • Traumatic spondylolisthesis of the second cervical vertebra
  • Fractures and perelomovyvihi lower cervical vertebrae



  • Fracture of first cervical vertebra

    The first cervical vertebra is called the atlas.
    He seems to be holding on his head. It is located at the junction of
    spine and occipital bones and looks like a ring. Between Atlanta and
    occipital bone is no cartilage pads (intervertebral discs)
    therefore when exposed to a traumatic force to the skull pressure
    with the occipital bone with no depreciation is transferred to the first cervical
    vertebra.

    The occipital bone is wedged into the ring of the atlas. Wherein
    broken front and rear arch of the atlas. This type of fracture is called
    "Bursting" or fracture of Jefferson and he often takes place in the fall
    on his head. The patient complains of pain in the neck, neck, top of the head.

    X-ray examination by a special technique
    (Anteroposterior radiographs made through the mouth) found
    Atlanta offset arcs with his usual place. Refines the diagnosis of
    using computer tomography. Half the patients first fractures
    vertebra accompanied by fractures of the vertebrae, or other damages
    spinal cord, medulla oblongata less that dramatically increase the weight
    the patient's condition.



    Fracture of second cervical vertebra

    The second cervical vertebra is called axial (axis). is he
    has the form of a ring, the front of which nazhoditsya massive ledge - tooth
    axial vertebra. tooth fracture can occur with a sharp bending of the neck
    in any direction. The first cervical vertebra - the atlas, which is fixed
    around the tooth is shifted forward or backward. From the degree of displacement
    the severity of the patient depends.

    The first degree of fracture, displacement is not detected. A patient
    complaining of mild pain when turning head and discomfort
    neck. This condition may be complicated when re-injury of the neck when
    offset increases.

    The turning point of the second degree. The first cervical vertebra and broken-off fragment
    tooth displaced anteriorly, while the rear of the Atlanta squeezes
    spinal cord. The patient may lose consciousness during or after injury
    it. Depending on the degree of compression of the spinal cord can occur
    various neurological disorders from mild disorders
    sensitivity in the neck to paresis and paralysis of two or all
    limbs (hemiparesis, tetraparesis). By moving the second cervical tooth
    back vertebra - neurological disorders occur to a lesser extent.
    For large displacements (fracture of the third degree) most often
    condition incompatible with life.



    Traumatic spondylolisthesis of the second cervical vertebra

    Spondylolisthesis - is offset vertebra forward,
    backwards or sideways relative to the underlying vertebra. This damage
    called fracture "executioner". It occurs when a sudden extension of the cervical
    spine, if there is an obstacle in this movement.
    For example, when braking and hitting his head on the windshield. at
    This is most often broken arc of the second cervical vertebra, and his body
    moves forward.

    The patient complains of pain in the occipital region, at the turn of the head,
    limitation of movement head and neck. Diagnosis is made on
    Based on X-ray examination - lateral and direct radiography
    cervical spine.



    Fractures and perelomovyvihi lower cervical vertebrae

    Fractures of the lower cervical vertebrae often
    occur with a sharp, forced flexion of the cervical spine
    spine. Thus there is a body compression fractures
    vertebrae.

    Fractures of the cervical spine
    Patient concerned about pain in the neck, head turns and the restriction
    movements in the neck. The examination revealed tenderness spinous
    processes the affected vertebra, tension of the neck muscles. Sometimes, if
    links between spines broken, can be found
    affectation line of the spinous processes in the form of lightning or bayonet. In that
    the case of the patient's condition and fracture are considered unstable because
    There is a risk of spinal cord damage.

    Diagnosis is carried out using X-ray images on
    which are wedge-shaped deformation of the vertebra. Depending on the
    degree of displacement of bone fragments, there may be neurological disorders
    up to spinal cord compression.

    Sometimes there are dislocations of the vertebrae. In this case
    the patient's head is turned to the opposite side of the dislocation, chin
    close to the opposite shoulder. On the level of dislocation can occur
    compression of the nerve root. Spinal cord typically does not suffer. Besides
    fractures and dislocations of the cervical vertebrae meet traumatic
    damage to the ligaments and intervertebral discs. These lesions also
    manifested by pain and limitation of motion in the neck, to avoid
    fracture is necessary to conduct X-ray examination.

    If you suspect a fracture of the cervical spine affected
    placed on a stretcher, his head tucked under cotton-gauze circle, or
    immobilize the cervical spine semi-rigid collar.
    You can not make any turns, stretching the neck to determine
    diagnosis.

    If damaged ligaments patient is recommended wearing a neck
    collar for four weeks. Then, physiotherapy and appointed
    physiotherapy. When fractures without displacement, uncomplicated
    on neck fractures impose a stiff collar, corset made of gypsum or
    polivika by Schantz type for up to 4 months. Severe fractures at
    where there is a risk of displacement and spinal cord injury
    treated by means of traction halter or hardware for the traction
    skull. Traction is applied for up to one month, then the neck
    fixed via rigid collar for 3-4 months.

    In the most severe cases, compression of the spinal cord or
    the fragments of his injury, surgery is performed. For
    spinal fixation using plate clamps.

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