Fracture of first cervical vertebra
The first cervical vertebra is called the atlas.
He seems to be holding on his head. It is located at the junction of
spine and occipital bones and looks like a ring. Between Atlanta and
occipital bone is no cartilage pads (intervertebral discs)
therefore when exposed to a traumatic force to the skull pressure
with the occipital bone with no depreciation is transferred to the first cervical
The occipital bone is wedged into the ring of the atlas. Wherein
broken front and rear arch of the atlas. This type of fracture is called
"Bursting" or fracture of Jefferson and he often takes place in the fall
on his head. The patient complains of pain in the neck, neck, top of the head.
X-ray examination by a special technique
(Anteroposterior radiographs made through the mouth) found
Atlanta offset arcs with his usual place. Refines the diagnosis of
using computer tomography. Half the patients first fractures
vertebra accompanied by fractures of the vertebrae, or other damages
spinal cord, medulla oblongata less that dramatically increase the weight
the patient's condition.
Fracture of second cervical vertebra
The second cervical vertebra is called axial (axis). is he
has the form of a ring, the front of which nazhoditsya massive ledge - tooth
axial vertebra. tooth fracture can occur with a sharp bending of the neck
in any direction. The first cervical vertebra - the atlas, which is fixed
around the tooth is shifted forward or backward. From the degree of displacement
the severity of the patient depends.
The first degree of fracture, displacement is not detected. A patient
complaining of mild pain when turning head and discomfort
neck. This condition may be complicated when re-injury of the neck when
The turning point of the second degree. The first cervical vertebra and broken-off fragment
tooth displaced anteriorly, while the rear of the Atlanta squeezes
spinal cord. The patient may lose consciousness during or after injury
it. Depending on the degree of compression of the spinal cord can occur
various neurological disorders from mild disorders
sensitivity in the neck to paresis and paralysis of two or all
limbs (hemiparesis, tetraparesis). By moving the second cervical tooth
back vertebra - neurological disorders occur to a lesser extent.
For large displacements (fracture of the third degree) most often
condition incompatible with life.
Traumatic spondylolisthesis of the second cervical vertebra
Spondylolisthesis - is offset vertebra forward,
backwards or sideways relative to the underlying vertebra. This damage
called fracture "executioner". It occurs when a sudden extension of the cervical
spine, if there is an obstacle in this movement.
For example, when braking and hitting his head on the windshield. at
This is most often broken arc of the second cervical vertebra, and his body
The patient complains of pain in the occipital region, at the turn of the head,
limitation of movement head and neck. Diagnosis is made on
Based on X-ray examination - lateral and direct radiography
Fractures and perelomovyvihi lower cervical vertebrae
Fractures of the lower cervical vertebrae often
occur with a sharp, forced flexion of the cervical spine
spine. Thus there is a body compression fractures
Patient concerned about pain in the neck, head turns and the restriction
movements in the neck. The examination revealed tenderness spinous
processes the affected vertebra, tension of the neck muscles. Sometimes, if
links between spines broken, can be found
affectation line of the spinous processes in the form of lightning or bayonet. In that
the case of the patient's condition and fracture are considered unstable because
There is a risk of spinal cord damage.
Diagnosis is carried out using X-ray images on
which are wedge-shaped deformation of the vertebra. Depending on the
degree of displacement of bone fragments, there may be neurological disorders
up to spinal cord compression.
Sometimes there are dislocations of the vertebrae. In this case
the patient's head is turned to the opposite side of the dislocation, chin
close to the opposite shoulder. On the level of dislocation can occur
compression of the nerve root. Spinal cord typically does not suffer. Besides
fractures and dislocations of the cervical vertebrae meet traumatic
damage to the ligaments and intervertebral discs. These lesions also
manifested by pain and limitation of motion in the neck, to avoid
fracture is necessary to conduct X-ray examination.
If you suspect a fracture of the cervical spine affected
placed on a stretcher, his head tucked under cotton-gauze circle, or
immobilize the cervical spine semi-rigid collar.
You can not make any turns, stretching the neck to determine
If damaged ligaments patient is recommended wearing a neck
collar for four weeks. Then, physiotherapy and appointed
physiotherapy. When fractures without displacement, uncomplicated
on neck fractures impose a stiff collar, corset made of gypsum or
polivika by Schantz type for up to 4 months. Severe fractures at
where there is a risk of displacement and spinal cord injury
treated by means of traction halter or hardware for the traction
skull. Traction is applied for up to one month, then the neck
fixed via rigid collar for 3-4 months.
the fragments of his injury, surgery is performed. For
spinal fixation using plate clamps.