I recently rode the bus. Someone on the road with a characteristic burst bang bus. All shuddered, and one woman started a real hysteria. It is sealed off with water, they said something, the girl handed the ice cream, and all passenger could not calm down ...
Maybe this is an extreme case. But why do we inwardly tense up every time an unexpected stop on the subway train, with the fear of sending their children to school, renting a plane ticket? The answer to the surface: life is gone, it does not spare us, and the events of recent months can be more than enough for it to really be frightened. Accidents, acts of war, ethnic conflicts, explosions, acts of terrorism, loss of loved ones ... and you catch yourself thinking about what it is you can be in place of four hostages in Beslan school.
This tragic event, as well as onbombings in Moscow, the terrorist attacks in the Moscow subway and on the streets, said and shown on television channels are already very much. But problems remain. And one of the most basic - the psychological rehabilitation of children who survived the tragedy. Today we are together with the specialists, psychologists talk about how to beat stress, how to help children overcome fear and what experience can be learned for the future.
I appeal to Yulia Belova - a child psychologist, a leading expert of one of the psychological centers.
rehabilitation require mostly adults. What about children? They are, they say, after a
Half an hour are included in the game and forget about everything. Is it
In fact, and whether there are particular responses to the child's mind
- This statement is fundamentally wrong. Psychological memory present in children as well as adults. Just kids instinctively squeezed out of their memories for their dramatic situation.
One of the main features of the children's reactions tostress - self-rehabilitation. If the child psyche well enough, then he quickly starts to display itself in any way from the stress alone. For example, will have a lot to say on the subject of what happened to him, play with your family this situation, to portray on paper. It should be noted that the younger the child, the more evident this feature. Older children that are affected by social conventions, less prone to splashing out such negative emotions.
One of the characteristic features of the reactionChild stress - autization. That is a departure from reality. "The world is dangerous. I do not want to go there ", - the child instinctively makes the following conclusions and hides in his shell. Unlike adults, children are more emotional, they have not developed the ego, so they find it difficult to comprehend the situation rationally. The result - a withdrawal from the outside world.
- What are the signs parents can determine thisthe child's condition, as some kids life demure, not inclined to splash out emotions? He sits currently is playing, reading. Not rowdy. So, all right?
- Indeed, the child can continue to playin favorite toys, to communicate with other people, but it becomes less emotional. During the game, or talk as if he does not hear his own age, and almost no eye contact, and almost all his spare time devotes drawing some meaningless sticks. Meaningless repetitive actions should alert parents.
Talking with a psychologist, could not help mentallyback to the fate of children who are victims of Beslan. It is hoped that the process of self-rehabilitation they will not last. However, it's been a long time, but almost all children, regardless of age, is still repeated in conversations with doctors, relatives and journalists, similar within the meaning of the phrase. "Why should I go to this school?" - And then asked four year old boy. Two friends-school girls are distressed, "gathered on the road to go to the store, and then change your mind and run to school. But it might be too late and would not have got there. "
Just - there. We arrived from Beslan word is self-explanatory. "I can not believe that half of the class is not in the world. To the place I most ten meters will not come "- these are the words of ten George. Endless play tragic situation psychologically explainable. After the wounds - both physical and mental - not tightened quickly. Yet with such a painful injury there is a danger of transition of acute forms of stress in chronic. There is a so-called post-traumatic disorder.
Scientists and psychiatrists were studiedhealth of children who have experienced traumatic for the psyche of events (natural disasters, technological accidents, terrorist attacks). It was shown that traumatic responses in children during the first period after a disaster passed several stages.
- Shock stage. At the child a feeling of confusion, helplessness, panic. It can not in any way reflect on what happened.
- Step memories - going assessment of the incident, denying the incident, increased anxiety, panic disorder.
- Post-traumatic stage. At this stage, there are phobias (fear of losing loved ones, fear of separation, fear of death); symptoms of psychosomatic origin (enuresis, convulsive state, sleep disturbance, headaches); affective disorders (depression, low self-esteem, feeling of guilt).
For example, about 40% of children who witnessthe destruction of the dam in the Gulf of Buffalo in 1979, showed symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder after 2 years after the disaster. Approximately 30% of children who were in the midst of Hurricane Andrew, showed symptoms of severe post-traumatic stress disorder. Approximately 12% of children retained these symptoms after about a year after the disaster. Especially robust were reliving and recreating shaped picture of what happened.
Of course, the response and the rehabilitation of the child in many waysdepend upon its individual characteristics. Different children have different thresholds of sensitivity to injury. Yet experts developed specific therapy to help children cope with their feelings and reactions after experiencing stress.
Here we will talk not only about aidspecialists. After all, next to the relatives of the victims are children yet. And we must not forget that adults are themselves experiencing terrible stress and great emotional stress. Again, I ask to help me answer this question my companion Julia Belov.
- The first reaction stage traumatic when allit is too hot, the child needs a warm emotional contact, no need to ask him about his experiences, memories too painful for him. It is important to create an atmosphere of psychological safety for the child. To this end, the first thing that can make any parent - to feel that he is close. The conversation, body contact, a feeling of warmth. Let not even words, but any touch gives the child a sense of security.
Secondly, it is important not to start lookingthose responsible for the incident. After all, so the survivors after such dramas for a long time there is a sense of guilt: "Why, I asked my grandmother and her brother to come with me to school? They would live now. And in general, if not the first of September, all would be well. " It is important to talk not to raise these issues and to switch the child to other thoughts.
However, only increase the danger of an understatementChild anxiety. Children are very clearly perceive and understand the reaction of their parents. Therefore, parents just need to share with the children thoughts that bother them. "Yeah, me too hard, it hurts, I'm terribly worried, but I'm with you, and together we can handle." Needless to say that all is well. This setting puts a wall between the child and parent. Baby well-read to feel a heightened sense of loneliness, guilt. "All right, then, to me alone so bad?". The child closes, which prevents the further withdrawal from the stress.
- Prior to that, we talked about the first days, weeks afterexperienced, but very often the emotional distress due to the individual, age characteristics and external factors develop into deep stress. And then, without the help of experts simply can not do. This is true?
- Indeed, it is very important to identify the signspost traumatic disorders (MID). If held for over a month, and the child continues to suffer all the memories, lose situation again, he was haunted by fears, he becomes autistic, he is in need of urgent assistance.
One of the manifestations of the chronic form of stress- Psychosomatic disorders. That is, the child starts to hurt. This may be a common cold, but sometimes appear more serious disease - heart, stomach.
With such a delayed reaction psychologist task - to help children get rid of fear.
- Psychologists insist on discussing the tragicevents with the aim to bring these fears of the subconscious. Many children who have been in an emergency situation, just say the following phrase: "I feel like to remember." Could not dive into memories of harm?
- It is known that the mere fact that verbalizationworries and fears (arranged them in verbal form) has a therapeutic effect. But again, it is important that the child himself wanted to talk about their fears, and this will only happen with the full confidence in the therapist. When he realizes that he was there, inside, harder to keep these experiences, rather than splash out, then you're ready to talk, and later - to work with the very feelings.
How to tell the many parents, after the hostage crisis in Beslan children who live far from the places experiencing restlessness and anxiety. There was even a term - secondary victims of disasters.
This is a particular case: "After the hostage-taking in Beslan, my 9-year old daughter can not get over it. Seen on TV has had on her a strong impact. It became a closed, indifferent to games, refuses to go to school. I wanted to talk to her to find out what it was she so afraid of, but my husband says that it is better not to remind her of what he had seen. He believes that it is better to distract her, and gradually forget all girl. Who of us is right? "
traumatic effect on the state of mind. And if the person knew about the
happened indirectly, such as through the media
- Of course, the child sees what is happening aroundhim and to withhold information from him senseless. The child goes to school, he hears conversations, watching television, going through all seen and heard. And I will not say it's good, but it's natural. If this goes on, say, a week or two, then that's fine. Again, the important periods during which continuing children's fears and anxiety.
There is sufficient parental involvement torelive stress. We need to show that you understand the child, understand his feelings, emotions. If these reactions are tightened and the baby continues to not sleep at night, and is afraid to go to school here, of course, we need the help of a psychologist. Quite often such a reaction provoked not so much by what he saw as the existing inner fears. And if there is no specialist provided timely help, then the problem goes deeper.
Time cures. Communication with close people too careful. It's time to talk about the techniques and methods of rehabilitation of children. Experts offer a variety of options. Drawing fear. Writing a story on the theme of fear. Using games and dramatizations. Gestalt therapy (child psychologist said that he had a dream, and the psychologist asks to see that dream, with the help of movements, activities, toys, masks, clay). Anyway, all the methods are directed to ensure that the child began calmly to his fear, saw him from the side, "touched" it as something real.
While visiting specialists Psychological Center, of course, interested in Julia, what are the main techniques she uses in her work.
- Of course, everything depends on the age andparticular fear. Still, the most common use pattern. For kids it's all very familiar and organic activity. With older children, a little harder, they may refuse to portray something, "I do not know, I did not get." And yet established contacts with teens also respond to such elaborate fear. A child shows what he is afraid he may do so repeatedly, adding other colors in the image by changing it, making more and more optimistic. In the end, fear ceases to scare him.
Besides drawing it can be molded and dolldramatization. These classes are convenient because children lose the same situation a few times. This helps the child to remove the emotional stress and gives you the opportunity to change the situation, play it along with the characters and to come to an optimistic conclusion.
The most important thing - starting with the first class,give the child to express their own on paper or in a game. He chooses the paint those toys, which are currently the most reflect his inner state. For example, the child himself determines the toy, which is similar to his fear of the dark. His fear becomes certain, he holds it in his hands. My task - to control the situation, to remove the anchor from his past. And, of course, requires constant verbal communication, conversation. Only by establishing a confidential contact all therapeutic measures will be most effective.
In conclusion, we can say that any helpIt is effective if it is timed. If you have any doubt, go to a psychiatrist with the child or not, it is better to play it safe and go than be ashamed to do it and then have to treat chronic disorder.
Interviewed by Anna Zhukova "Help your child to forget this nightmare."