Ascariasis - worm infestation, which flows in the early stages of lung lesions
(Usually asymptomatic), allergic reactions, in the later stages - disorders of the gastrointestinal activity
tract with possible severe complications.
The main causative agent - roundworm (nematode) Ascaris lumbricoides. similar
can cause lesions and other nematodes observed
in humans is rare.
Ascariasis is widespread in temperate and warm
climate, it is rarely recorded in polar and subpolar regions and
desert zones. The average incidence of the world's population reaches 1
billion per year. infection mechanism - fecal-oral (ie,
dirty hands, unwashed fruits and vegetables). The source of infection - the soil,
vegetables, berries, fruit, infected with helminth eggs.
What are the manifestations of ascariasis
After ingestion of a man of mature eggs of Ascaris in the upper part of the small intestine of them
larvae penetrate the intestinal wall into the bloodstream and entered the portal vein
through the liver and the superior vena cava into the right heart. According to the pulmonary artery
larvae enter the lungs and through the walls of lung capillaries migrate into the alveoli.
Migrate from the respiratory tract in the oral cavity (usually at night), and mixed
with saliva, swallowed again. Larva, again ranked in the intestine, after 2.5 - 3 months matures into an adult. The clinical picture is due to ascariasis allergization
the body's waste products to the parasite and mechanical occlusion of the affected organs.
The intestinal phase of ascariasis can occur hidden, due to the low number of
parasitic individuals. Formation of a large population of Ascaris (more
50 individuals) causes symptoms such as fever; adults - loss of appetite, dizziness, nausea, feeling of heaviness in the pancreas
area; children - drooling, teeth grinding at night, pain and bloating
abdomen, depressed mood, headache.
"Pulmonary" (Migration) stage has the following features: temperature rise
body, cough, sputum eosinophils detection in, infiltrates
lung eosinophilia (high levels of eosinophils in the blood).
How is the diagnosis of ascariasis
- Detection of Ascaris eggs in faeces
- Pulmonary ascariasis stage: hypereosinophilia and sputum microscopy (find larvae of Ascaris)
- Serological methods (precipitation reaction, RIGA, RSK).
How is the treatment of ascariasis
The drugs of choice in the treatment of ascariasis:
- Pyrantel 10 mg / kg (1 g) once inside, reception is repeated 2
weeks. Contraindicated during pregnancy
- Mebendazole 100 mg 2 times a day for 3 days. After 6 months, a second
a course of treatment. Contraindicated during pregnancy
If you suspect a bowel obstruction and bile passages illustrated introduction
through naso-gastric gavage of 5% solution of piperazine adipate 150 mg / kg, followed by
65 mg / kg every 6 hours 12 times.
If contraindications to the above-mentioned drugs - oxygen therapy (administration
oxygen through a tube into the intestine).
The effectiveness of treatment is determined by three-time (every 2 weeks) study
What are the complications of ascariasis
- Asphyxia (suffocation) due to the migration of Ascaris in the nasopharynx and respiratory
- obstructive jaundice
- Acute pancreatitis