Hymenolepiasis - chronic helminthiasis (cestodosis) flowing with hypovitaminosis and severe toxic and allergic reactions.
Pathogens - tapeworms (cestodes) Hymenolepis nana (dwarf tapeworm), less Hymenolepis diminuta (rat tapeworm).
The majority of cases causes dwarf tapeworm. Infection with Hymenolepis diminuta occurs when swallowed intermediate hosts (caterpillars ognёvki mill, flour beetle, some species of cockroaches). The source of infection - a sick man. In areas of widespread ascaridosis hymenolepiasis not met. The most frequently recorded of children 4-10 years old. In most cases the infection is self-limiting in 15-16 years. It is not uncommon for a long time ongoing infections (up to 20 years or more).
How is hymenolepiasis
Trauma of the intestinal mucosaparasites hooks causes abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea. parasites waste products lead to allergic reactions (rash, urticaria, vasomotor rhinitis), the development of dysbiosis and vitamin deficiencies. The defeat of the nervous system characterized by headaches and increased irritability. Rarely observed increase in liver.
- Identification of parasite eggs in feces
- To increase the effectiveness of the method, on the eve of the study, the patient is prescribed phenisal 0.5-1 g in the evening. The drug destroys the helminth membrane and contributes to the release of more eggs
- It is recommended to conduct triple examinations at intervals of 5-7 days, because a single examination is positive only in 50% of cases due to the frequency of eggs
- Blood tests: Signs of anemia, eosinophilia (an increase in the number of eosinophils in the blood), increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
Treatment and prevention hymenolepiasis
Drug of choice
- Praziquantel 25 mg / kg body weight after eating once. When a massive re-infection is recommended taking the drug a week later.
- Phenasal - 2-3 g / day (for children under 2 years old - 0.5 g, from 2up to 5 years - 1 g, from 5 to 12 years - 1.5 g, over 12 years old - 2-3 g) in 4 doses every 2 hours (at 10, 12, 14 and 16 hours) in the form of two courses of 4 days with a four-day interval or 2 days with an interval of 4-5 days. On the day of treatment, liquid or semi-liquid fat-free foods are recommended (at 8, 13 and 18 hours).
In between, restorative treatment is carried out between cycles deworming (release of the body from parasites) (vitamins, calcium supplements).
To confirm the removal of helminth from the body conducting a study of feces at 1 and 3 months after treatment.
- A survey of children of staff of preschool institutions and students (up to grade 4 inclusive), at least 1 / year
- In identifying hymenolepiasis examination is required for all family members
- Removal of contaminated food business employees from work for the period of treatment
- Compliance with the rules of personal hygiene