Measles treatment and vaccination

Content

  • Symptoms of measles
  • complications
    measles
  • Treatment
    measles
  • prevention
    measles
  • What are the contraindications to vaccination

  • Measles - an acute viral disease accompanied by fever,
    inflammation of mucous membranes, rash. It is one of the most
    infectious diseases. The child may develop measles if he visited
    room where 2 hours before he was sick. Almost all contacts
    (98%) lead to the disease. The disease is transmitted by airborne droplets
    means.

    In the environment the virus is shed in mucus when sneezing, coughing, talking. The only
    the source of infection is a sick person who becomes
    contagious 3 days before the rash appears within 4-5 days
    rashes.

    Measles mostly affects children under the age of 4 years. Children
    the first year of life is usually reserved immunity passed from mother
    (If the mother previously had measles or been vaccinated against it), it is
    It is stored in a child under the age of 1 year. After undergoing measles had been ill in the body is produced proof lifelong immunity.


    Symptoms of measles

    Measles treatment and vaccination
    The incubation period lasts 9-11 days. prophylactic
    administration of immunoglobulin it can be extended up to 15-21 days. separate
    manifestations of the disease observed in the second half of the incubation period
    - Reduction of the child's body weight, edema and hyperemia of the lower eyelid
    (Redness), conjunctival, increasing the temperature at night, coughing,
    little runny. Basic, or prodromal period characterized
    increase in body temperature to 38-39 ° C, fatigue, general
    malaise, loss of appetite. There is a growing cold, there
    rude "barking" cough, conjunctival hyperemia pronounced. appears
    enanthema measles - a small red spot located on the mucosa
    shell soft and hard palate. Characteristic for measles spots
    Bielsko-Koplik Filatov - they are located in the mucosa of the cheek
    and are small whitish, slightly elevated above the
    mucosal level spots surrounded by a narrow reddish
    rim, firmly seated on the mucous membrane. In appearance spots mean
    Filatov-Koplik remind semolina or bran. With the advent
    exanthema (rash), they disappear. At the end of the initial period (day 3-4)
    Body temperature drops, then the appearance of measles rash again
    increases to higher numbers. Total intoxication and defeat
    airway amplified. Measles rash (rash), characterized
    Stages of precipitation: in the 1 st day of the rash items appear on the face, neck;
    on the 2nd day - on the trunk, arms and thighs; on the 3rd day of the rash captures
    legs and feet, and his face begins to fade. The most densely elements
    rash located on the face, neck and upper torso. Eruptions
    It consists of small papules (about 2 mm), surrounded by irregularly shaped
    spot, the spot diameter is usually more than 10 mm. Elements rash prone
    to merge, to form complex shapes with scalloped edges. However, even
    with the most dense areas of the rash can be found quite normal
    skin. In some cases, the background can be seen measles exanthema
    hemorrhage (petechiae). After 3-4 days the rash fade elements, their
    place are brownish spots - pigmentation. On-site rash
    further observed pityriasis (resembling bran) peeling
    face and torso.

    In the absence of complications at the same time with the decrease in temperature and
    blanching rash general condition of patients improved catarrhal
    effects diminish and disappear, recovery occurs.

    Depending on the severity distinguish mild, moderate
    and severe form of measles. Especially hard measles occurs in young children
    under the age of 2 years.

    Infected persons who during the incubation period
    prophylactically administered immunoglobulin or blood transfusions and
    plasma, measles is mild. It is characterized by increased incubation
    period (21 days) are usually carried out at a temperature subfebrile
    (Up to 38 degrees), catarrhal phenomena from the respiratory tract
    are mild, stains Bielsko-Filatova Koplik not rash in the form of
    individual elements, without typical measles phasing. no complications
    It gives.


    complications
    measles

    In 30% of cases of measles leads to complications. most often
    Complications occur in children under 5 years of age and persons over 20 years
    age.

    The most common complication - bronchitis, tracheitis,
    laryngitis, pneumonia, otitis media and other bacterial infections, as well as
    blindness, hearing injury, mental retardation. In one case,
    1000-2000 measles encephalitis is recorded (usually 2-21
    days after the rash appears), often starting with a temperature rise,
    convulsions and coma.

    The disease is dangerous for pregnant women. If a pregnant woman becomes infected
    measles, the chance of miscarriage and fetal abnormalities is about 20%.


    Treatment
    measles

    Most patients are treated at home with measles. There should be a toilet
    eyes, nose and lips. Drinking plenty of fluids should meet the need
    in body fluids. The food - a full, rich in vitamins, easily
    digestible. Symptomatic therapy includes antitussives,
    antipyretics, antihistamines. Appointed vitamin A (200
    000-400 000 IU) orally for the first 2 days - all children early
    age as well as older children with severe concomitant
    diseases. Antibiotics are prescribed for bacterial complications:
    pneumonia, bronchitis, otitis media, and others. In a grave condition of patients
    used corticosteroids (prednisone, hydrocortisone), a short course
    at a dose of 1 mg / kg body weight. When brain edema -
    dehydrating (mannitol, Lasix) and anti-inflammatories,
    drugs that improve cerebral circulation.


    prevention
    measles

    Currently, the main preventive measure is the active
    immunizations (shots). Apply the following vaccines: measles vaccine
    culture live dry; MMP II; Ruvaks.

    Measles vaccination is carried out without a history of measles for children
    12-15 months. The second vaccine is administered at the age of 6 years (before
    school). Vaccination against measles in countries with a high incidence of
    held at 9 and even 6 months, in order to protect infants
    in whom the disease is especially hard.

    The effectiveness of vaccination

    With proper vaccination immunity is produced in 95%
    vaccinated at the age of 12 months and at 98% of the vaccinated
    aged 15 months to 21-28 days after inoculation. Immunity lasts
    more than 25 years, only a very small number of vaccinated, he can
    fade.

    Adverse reactions

    Most children vaccination is not accompanied by side
    reactions. However, in some cases, in the period from 5 to 15 days after
    vaccination may be marked increase in body temperature (typically not
    above 39 C), catarrhal phenomena (cough, conjunctivitis, runny nose)
    scant pale pink morbilliform rash (5% of children), children
    prone to allergic reactions, it may be rash in the first hours after the
    administration of the vaccine. Vaccination reactions usually disappear within 2-3
    days. Outside of the child is not contagious, depending on the severity of the reaction to
    others.


    What are the contraindications to vaccination

    • Measles treatment and vaccination
      Strong reaction or complication to a previous dose of the vaccine.
    • If the child has received blood products (immunoglobulins, plasma
      the blood), the vaccination is carried out not earlier than 3 months after the
      administration of blood products.
    • Allergic reactions to antibiotics aminoglycoside
      (Neomycin because contains about 25 micrograms per vaccine dose liquid
      this drug).
    • The presence of allergic reactions to eggs in history. Reaction to
      egg protein is a contraindication to the use of import
      vaccines, since They are prepared using chicken embrinov. When
      reaction to quail eggs, vaccination is better to import the vaccine.
    • Any acute illness or exacerbation of chronic diseases.
    • Active untreated tuberculosis.
    • Patients receiving immunosuppressive (suppress the immune system)
      therapy. After a drug or radiation immunosuppression vaccine
      introduced not earlier than 3 months after application
      high doses of corticosteroids - no earlier than one month. after
      the end of treatment.
    • Patients with diseases of the blood, leukemias, lymphomas of any type
      or other malignancies affecting the bone marrow or
      the lymphatic system.
    • Primary and acquired immunodeficiency, including AIDS
      or other clinical manifestations of infection with the virus
      Human immunodeficiency. Infected with HIV (without the expressed
      immunosuppression) vaccination is not contraindicated.
    • Pregnancy due to the theoretical risk to the fetus.

    Preferably, the introduction of the measles vaccine in the first 3 days of
    the moment of contact with the patient, which is carried out without a history of measles and
    vaccinated children older than 12 months, adolescents and adults. In children
    aged 3-12 months is also possible in the form of urgent prevention
    vaccination.

    It is also possible administration of 1 or 2 doses (depending on the state
    health and the time elapsed from the moment of contact) immunoglobulin
    normal person. Used for children aged up to one year,
    immunocompromised patients and pregnant women. This form of prevention
    It is most effective when administered before the 4th day from the moment of contact.


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