The concept of rheumatic heart disease
Rheumatic heart disease - inflammation of the heart membranes. As a rule, it appears in rheumatism. Obtained risk factors that are important in the prevention of rheumatic fever:
- the presence of rheumatic and connective tissue diseases in first-degree relatives
- age 7-15 years
- transferred acute streptococcal infection and frequent infections
Rheumatism occurs only after acute infection,caused by streptococcus. No other infection does not lead to the development of rheumatic fever. The thing is that this pathogen is able to produce substances that have a pronounced toxic effect on the heart. There is a relationship between streptococcus antigen and tissue infarction. Streptococcus toxins cause the development of inflammation in the cardiovascular system and connective tissue, due to violations of the immune response. In the blood out active ingredients, and begins an autoimmune reaction to damage connective tissue fibers, especially of the heart and blood vessels.
Symptoms of rheumatic heart disease
All these changes are taking place within sixmonths. It is shown as follows: at a young age, 2 weeks after the previous infection appear unwell, recurrent pain in the large joints, body temperature 37.0-37.8 C may be an inflammatory reaction of the blood (increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate)?.
The main symptoms of rheumatic heart disease include:
- dyspnea on slight exertion
already must be taken during this period topreventing the formation of a vast chamber of the heart. If a person recovering from an infection such complaints persist, you should immediately consult your doctor for further examination, and be sure to use an active therapeutic and prophylactic course.
If you do not carry out preventive measures,1-3 weeks later, there are already signs of heart lesions and changes in laboratory parameters. This indicates the presence of inflammation expressed in heart - rheumatic heart disease. When there is inflammation of rheumatic heart disease, or all of the individual layers of the heart wall. Usually, inflammation captures the two layers of the inner and middle (endocardium and myocardium), and rarely involved outside (the pericardium). A person with loads having pain in the heart (dull, aching, not intense), shortness of breath, irregular heart activity (arrhythmia). Rheumatic heart disease will be reflected on the pumping function of the heart in the form of congestion in a small or large circulation. When blood stagnation in the small circle of blood circulation there are signs of deterioration of the lungs, which resemble pneumonia.
When blood stasis in the systemic circulation appear swelling of the legs, abdomen, liver increases in size as a result of congestion, there is pain due to distension of its capsule.
Inflammation of the inner layer of the heartwall (endocardium) is always a risk of thrombus formation with subsequent thromboembolism vessels. Signs by which to judge adjourned endocarditis - formed heart disease. In the acute phase the body needs a regular supply of plastic material - protein, fat, active breeding products of tissue decay; also do not forget about the regulation of the immune response (reduction of aggression to their own tissues).
Rheumatic heart disease leads to the formation of the valveheart defects - most affected mitral valve with the development of its failure (incomplete closing of the valves) or stenosis (narrowing) of the left atrioventricular opening.
Quite often, rheumatic heart disease is prolongedcurrent, combined with atrial fibrillation symptoms and congestion, indicating heart failure. Return rheumatic heart disease is characterized by the same features as the primary rheumatic heart disease, but the pathological process takes place against the backdrop formed heart defect that affects the human condition.
Diagnosis and treatment of rheumatic heart disease
In a study of patients with rheumatic heart diseaseshow enlargement of the heart borders, muted his tone, appearance of heart murmurs, blood changes and an electrocardiogram and al. Treatment of the disease is aimed at reducing inflammation and elimination of heart failure.