Anomaliyai kidney structure
For anomalies of kidney structure include:
- Kidney Dysplasia (rudimentary, dwarf kidney)
- Multicystic kidney,
- Polycystic kidney,
- Cup-and pelvic cyst,
- Anomalies cups (megakaliks, sponge kidney).
This anomaly consists in a congenital kidney decrease in size while malformation of kidney tissue and decreased renal function. There are two forms of kidney dysplasia:
- Dwarf kidney.
rudimentary kidney - This body that has stopped in its developmentEarly embryonic period. In this case, instead of the kidneys revealed slight sclerotic mass of 1 - 3 cm or less. In the study it detected the remains underdeveloped glomeruli and tubules.
Dwarf kidneyMoreover, significantly reduced insizes (2 - 5 cm), a fabric with a sharp decrease in the number of glomeruli therein. The number of renal vessels significantly reduced. The ureter is sometimes zaraschen. This form of anomaly is often complicated by renal arterial hypertension.
Kidney Multikistoz - is a rare anomaly. Its frequency is about 1% of all kidney malformations. Typically, it is one-sided and is more common in boys left.
When all the kidney tissue, and this anomaly disappearsinstead finding cysts. The ureter is not usually a lumen, or absent altogether. Consisting of one kidney cysts is increased in size. It can be felt through the abdominal wall. It has an uneven surface. Cysts are cavities filled with fluid.
Sometimes, if in the depths of a kidney to maintain normal tissue, it is still some time produces urine and cysts in the kidney filled with urine. In 1/5 cases the changes are in the second kidney.
Bilateral renal multikistoz incompatible with life.
When unilateral multikistoze kidney treatmentOnly operative. Sometimes surgery is necessary to carry out urgently if developing festering cysts or cyst rupture occurs. The kidney is removed with multikistozom.
multicystic kidney disease
Polycystic kidney - is not uncommon,It has a hereditary nature and is a serious disease. Polycystic kidney disease is always two-way. In this case the normal kidney tissue is replaced by multiple cysts of varying size. Cysts occur when disturbed formation of kidney tubules. Some of them end up blindly, filled with urine expand, forming bubbles - cysts. They say that such a bud resembles a bunch of grapes.
polycystic kidney disease may be associated with cysts in other organs. Often accompanied by polycystic kidney disease polycystic liver. This disease is more common in women.
manifested multicystic kidney disease dull pain in the lumbar region, the rapidfatigue during exercise. The patient is observed polyuria (frequent urination abundant), thirst. Soon there is renal failure. Usually there are attached hypertension and cardiovascular disorders. The urine is detected hematuria (blood in the urine). Stagnation of urine in cysts in the kidney contributes to the development of infection and often develop pyelonephritis, which can accelerate the development of renal failure.
Depending on the speed of development of chronic renal failure are three stages of polycystic kidney disease.
The first stage - Renal insufficiency compensatedcapabilities of the body. It appears dull pain in the kidney area. Small general symptoms (fatigue, recurrent headache, fatigue on exertion) and a minor violation of the kidneys.
The second stage or stage subcompensation. When the compensatory capacity of the organism gradually depleted, and there is a dry mouth, thirst, nausea, headache, increased blood pressure.
The third stage - The stage of decompensation. There is a constant nausea, vomiting, a general deterioration of health, thirst. Renal function is reduced dramatically. a large number of metabolic products (urea, creatinine) accumulates in the blood that the kidneys are not able to excrete.
The diagnosis of polycystic kidney carried out on the basis of complaints of the patient. When palpation through the abdominal wall palpable enlarged kidneys uneven on both sides. Polycystic kidneys can become very large and may even be seen during the inspection, bulging through the abdomen, especially in children. In urinalysis are erythrocytes and leukocytes, urine specific gravity is lowered and does not change during the day. The blood tests reveal anemia (reduction in red blood cells) in the biochemical analysis of blood showed increased amounts of urea and creatinine. When ultrasound detected an enlarged kidney with a large number of cysts of various sizes. On the excretory urograms discover stretched and deformed pelvis due to compression of its cysts. In contrast the study of kidney blood vessels detect areas that do not have blood vessels and a sharp decrease in the number of small vessels in the kidney tissue.
Treatment of polycystic kidney disease. Possibilities of conservative treatment of polycystickidney limited. It aims to eliminate the infection in the urinary tract, combat anemia and high blood pressure. When expressed pain, finding large cysts, festering cysts sometimes spend operative decompression of polycystic kidneys. Cysts punctured and removed the contents of the cysts. This operation is called ignipuncture. Now spend percutaneous puncture of cysts without performing open surgery on the kidney. With the rapid progression of the symptoms of kidney failure, poor prognosis, the patient is constantly in need of hemodialysis. Often needed a kidney transplant.
When this disease is characterized by kidneycongenital multiple small cysts in the renal pyramids. Typically, this pathology occurs on both sides. Most often it occurs in men. Sometimes, the disease process may be limited to part of the kidney. In children, the disease can occur for a long time without any symptoms.
Manifestations sponge kidney may be back pain and hematuria.
Diagnosis sponge kidney based on data from X-ray studies. In this case the kidneys radiographs defined shadows small petrifikatov projected renal medullary substance.
When excretory urogram in renal papillae usually seen many small cavities in the brain substance, which makes the image look like pores of the sponge (hence the name).
Treatment of sponge kidney required only in case of complications. In total hematuria carry out activities aimed at stopping the bleeding. When you join pyelonephritis - an appropriate antibacterial treatment.
In the event of failure of conservative treatment with continued bleeding or relieves acute purulent pyelonephritis is usually performed nephrectomy.