Congenital heart defect
Congenital means "existing at birth." The terms "congenital heart disease" (CHD) and "congenital heart disease" is often used to refer to one and the same. Heart disease - a defect, an abnormality. The presence of vice is set at the wrong functioning and development of the heart and surrounding blood vessels.
If your child was born with a heart defect, hemany chances to overcome this problem and live a healthy life afterwards. Recent advances of diagnosis and surgery is quite allow to fix most defects, even seemingly completely hopeless. Heart surgery continues to develop successfully, scientists are exploring ways to fix other heart defects.
After diagnosing your child has heart disease need to pass some research. They will help professionals - children's cardiologists and surgeons - to understand whether the operation is necessary in your case.
No two children worldwide. Your doctor can give advice on heart disease is your child. This booklet will help you better understand what the doctor says, and tells what to expect from surveys that require your child about his hospital stay, surgery and recovery at home.
As there are congenital heart defects?
More common forms of complicated heart defects. In most cases it is not known what they called. Do not take the blame for the existing problems in your baby.
Sometimes the cause of birth defects can beviral infection. For example, if during pregnancy the mother becomes ill with measles, it can disrupt the normal heart development. The causes of these disorders can also be other viral diseases. Sometimes, in the event of the UPU plays the role of heredity. In such cases, heart disease can also occur in children of other families, but this is rare. Conditions that affect many organs, such as Down syndrome, can also affect the heart.
Women who use alcohol or drugs duringpregnancy, are at high risk to have a child with a heart defect. The emergence of many new year heart defects is related to the use of alcohol or drugs.
Other factors affecting the development of the heart, are studied. In truth, the cause of the majority of CHD is still unknown.
The frequency of congenital heart defects
At least 8 of the 1,000 newborns have a heart defect. This is almost 1% of the total number of births.
In the United States each year are born about 25-30 thousand. Children with CHD.
In the CIS countries are born every year about 40 thousand children with CHD.
Normal heart and how it works
Average heart - strong, worked tirelesslymuscle pump. The size of it is a human fist. The heart has four chambers. The two upper called atria, and two lower - ventricles. The atria are separated by atrial septum. The ventricles are separated by the interventricular septum.
Blood flows sequentially from atrialventricles, and then in the main artery through the four heart valves. The valves open and close, the blood flowing in one direction only.
Heart valves - a three-sided, ortricuspid valve located between the right atrium and right ventricle; pulmonary valve between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery; mitral valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle; and the aortic valve between the left ventricle and the aorta. Everyone has a certain amount of valve leaflets. The mitral valve has two flaps, and the rest - three folds.
"Blue" or venous blood, oxygen poor,It returns to the heart after passage through the vessels of the body. It flows through the veins to the heart and is in the right atrium. This chamber is emptied through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle pumps blood zheludochek.Pravy under slight pressure through the pulmonary valve into the pulmonary artery. From there, the blood goes to the lungs where it is enriched with oxygen.
After that, she returned on pulmonary veins inleft atrium. Then, passing through the mitral valve into the left ventricle misses. The left ventricle pumps oxygen-rich "scarlet" or arterial blood through the aortic valve into the aorta. The aorta carries blood on starting a new cycle for promoting the blood vessels of the body. The blood pressure in the left ventricle corresponds to the pressure which is measured on the arm.