Hydronephrosis: diagnosis and treatment


  • What are the symptoms of hydronephrosis
  • What are the causes of hydronephrosis
  • What are the complications in hydronephrosis
  • How to diagnose hydronephrosis
  • How is hydronephrosis treatment

  • Hydronephrosis - kidney disease, character­Teriizounds
    progressive expansion of a cup-laughter system due to
    impairment of urine outflows and an increase in hydrostatic pressure in
    Cashechian-laughter system, parenchyma and progressive atrophy
    deterioration of the main kidney functions. Also, the kidney hydronephrosis can develop not only in humans, but also at the cat.

    If urine is formed in the kidney fabric, then in the cup-making system
    (consists of several cups combined in a loyalty), she
    accumulates and enters the next department of urinary tract -
    ureter. He falls into the bladder.

    The disease is more common in women, mainly aged 25-35 years; prevails unilateral kidney damage.

    What are the symptoms of hydronephrosis

    Guide­Ronfrosis often develops asymptomatic and manifest
    when flashing infection, injury or accidentally detected during palpation
    Abdominal cavity. Symptoms characteristic only for hydronephrosis,
    No. Most often marked pain in the lumbar region of different
    intensity, per­in the early stages - in
    The form of attacks of renal colic. Pain in hydronephrosis may occur during the day, and at night, no matter what side sleeps the patient.

    Attacks are accompanied by nausea, vomiting, bloating and
    Increased arterial pressure. Often patients note a decrease
    the amount of urine before the attacks and during them and the increase in it
    quiet­After an attack. In far stages of hydronephrosis
    Acute pain noncharacterna.

    Increased temperature during pain attacks is possible only with infected hydronephrosis.

    An important symptom with a large hydronephrosis is tumor-like tumor education.

    Sometimes the only kidney hydronephrosis symptom is hematuria (micro- and macroscopic),
    more often observed in the initial stages of hydronephrosis. Macroscopic
    Hematuria is observed in 20% of patients with hydronephrosis, microhematuria -
    much more often.

    In the terminal stage of the disease, the kidney function is dramatically violated.
    Signs of renal failure appear mainly when
    two­third-party process.

    What are the causes of hydronephrosis

    Hydronephrosis can be congenital and acquired.

    The causes of congenital hydronephrosis are dystestesia
    urinary tract; Congenital anomaly for the arrangement of the renal artery (or
    its branches), squeezing the ureter; Congenital valves and strictures
    ureter; Retrokatar location of the ureter; Ureterocele,
    Congenital obstruction of the lower urinary tract.

    Hydronephrosis: diagnosis and treatment
    The causes of the acquired hydronephrosis are some
    Urological diseases: renal disease inflammatory disease
    Changes in the urinary system, traumatic narrowing of urinary tract,
    Urinary tract tumors, prostate tumors, as well as tumors
    cervical cervix, malignant infiltration of retroperitoneal fiber and
    small pelvic fiber, tumor metastases in retroperitoneal lymphatic
    nodes, finally, various traumatic and other damage to the dorsal
    Brain leading to violations of urine outflow.

    Anatomical obstacles are divided into five groups:

    • in the urethra and bladder;
    • located along the ureter, but outside his lume;
    • caused by deflection in the position and time of the ureter;
    • existing in the lumen of the ureter itself or in the cavity of the pelvis;
    • located in the wall of the ureter or lochank.

    One of the frequent causes of hydronephrosis is the so-called
    Add­A waste vessel going to the lower pole of the kidney and squeezing
    urine­Nick in the place of removal of him from Lohanka. The role of an additional vessel
    in the development of hydronephrosis is expressed as in mechanical
    compression and in the effects­Wi at his nervous muscular
    Lohang and ureteral segmen­TA. As a result of constant
    mutual and as a result of this­Telful reaction around
    Extreme vessel and ureter are formed and scars creating
    Fixed beggars or groan-ureter
    segment, and on the place of pressure on the ureter in it there is a scar
    SU fabric­His lifestyle. Obstacles to urine outflow,
    Layout of the ureter and pelvis, can be valves and
    Spurs on their mucous membrane, the narrowing of the ureter, the tumor of pelvis and
    ureter, stones, diverticul.

    What are the complications in hydronephrosis

    Dangerous hydronephrosis occurrence of renal failure.
    The kidney ceases to work in connection with which death can come from
    Incixation of the exchange products - the increase in the residual content
    nitrogen in the blood and other disorders of homeostasis, which are in normal
    Together with urine.

    Another dangerous hydronephrosis - a urolithiasis may occur, as well as to join the infection (pyelonephritis), which in turn can aggravate the course of the disease. Particularly dangerous kidney hydronephrosis during pregnancy.

    Hazardous complication of hydronephrosis is a spontaneous rupture of a locher or a cup. In this state, urine is poured directly into the retroperitoneal space.

    How to diagnose hydronephrosis

    With the slightest suspicion of the first degree hydronephrosis, it is necessary to apply the method­DC diagnostics confirming the diagnosis determining the cause arose­The news of the hydronephrosis that find out the stage of its development;

    • A comprehensive examination should be conducted: blood tests, urine.
    • Ultrasonic
      The study of the kidneys - allows you to determine the increase and size of the pelvis
      and kidney cups, the degree of their expansion, the thickness of the kidney fabric.
    • Radiographic study of the kidney - the main method of diagnosis of hydronephrosis.
      Review Radiograph makes it possible to determine the sizes of the kidneys and
      detect stones if they are. On a series of intravenous urograms
      It is possible to note the slow motion of the contrasting solution in
      Extended Lohank (Lohanks) and Cups. On the urograms are visible
      Expanded, Rounded Shape Lohanka, Extended Cups. At
      significant violation of the kidney function Contrast solution can
      accumulated in sufficient concentration only after 1- 2 h or not at all
      stand out with a sick kidney.
    • To determine the degree of violation of the kidney function, radioisotope examination and kidney scan.
    • To clarify the diagnosis, angiography, computer and magnetic-sensuous tomography is possible.

    How is hydronephrosis treatment

    In the hydronephrosis of the kidneys, treatment should be aimed at eliminating the cause, causing­the development of hydronephrosis, if necessary, a decrease in size­mokejlink and kidney saving.

    Conservative treatment is usually ineffective and applied only when
    inflammatory process in kidneys, to relieve pain, to reduce
    blood pressure, symptoms of renal failure and
    Used as preparation for the operation.

    Among the various methods of surgical treatment are the most common
    Reconstructive, organ-powered operations. Reconstruction methods
    a lot and the type and volume of the operation depends largely on what
    The disease caused hydronephrosis, and the forecast for
    Life of the patient.

    Indication to plastic operations are those stages of single and double-sided hydronephrosis, in which the Parenhim function in low­accurately preserved, and the reason that caused the disease can be­Ranna.

    In the hydronephrosis, the postoperative period is difficult, therefore it is resorted to the removal of the kidney when the kidney function is practically
    Lost, and the preservation of kidney is dangerous due to possible complications. More often
    This operation is performed by elderly patients. Of great importance in the hydronephrosis of the kidney has a diet.

    Leave a reply