progressive expansion of a cup-laughter system due to
impairment of urine outflows and an increase in hydrostatic pressure in
Cashechian-laughter system, parenchyma and progressive atrophy
deterioration of the main kidney functions. Also, the kidney hydronephrosis can develop not only in humans, but also at the cat.
If urine is formed in the kidney fabric, then in the cup-making system
(consists of several cups combined in a loyalty), she
accumulates and enters the next department of urinary tract -
ureter. He falls into the bladder.
The disease is more common in women, mainly aged 25-35 years; prevails unilateral kidney damage.
What are the symptoms of hydronephrosis
GuideRonfrosis often develops asymptomatic and manifest
when flashing infection, injury or accidentally detected during palpation
Abdominal cavity. Symptoms characteristic only for hydronephrosis,
No. Most often marked pain in the lumbar region of different
intensity, perin the early stages - in
The form of attacks of renal colic. Pain in hydronephrosis may occur during the day, and at night, no matter what side sleeps the patient.
Attacks are accompanied by nausea, vomiting, bloating and
Increased arterial pressure. Often patients note a decrease
the amount of urine before the attacks and during them and the increase in it
quietAfter an attack. In far stages of hydronephrosis
Acute pain noncharacterna.
Increased temperature during pain attacks is possible only with infected hydronephrosis.
An important symptom with a large hydronephrosis is tumor-like tumor education.
Sometimes the only kidney hydronephrosis symptom is hematuria (micro- and macroscopic),
more often observed in the initial stages of hydronephrosis. Macroscopic
Hematuria is observed in 20% of patients with hydronephrosis, microhematuria -
much more often.
In the terminal stage of the disease, the kidney function is dramatically violated.
Signs of renal failure appear mainly when
What are the causes of hydronephrosis
Hydronephrosis can be congenital and acquired.
The causes of congenital hydronephrosis are dystestesia
urinary tract; Congenital anomaly for the arrangement of the renal artery (or
its branches), squeezing the ureter; Congenital valves and strictures
ureter; Retrokatar location of the ureter; Ureterocele,
Congenital obstruction of the lower urinary tract.
The causes of the acquired hydronephrosis are some
Urological diseases: renal disease inflammatory disease
Changes in the urinary system, traumatic narrowing of urinary tract,
Urinary tract tumors, prostate tumors, as well as tumors
cervical cervix, malignant infiltration of retroperitoneal fiber and
small pelvic fiber, tumor metastases in retroperitoneal lymphatic
nodes, finally, various traumatic and other damage to the dorsal
Brain leading to violations of urine outflow.
Anatomical obstacles are divided into five groups:
- in the urethra and bladder;
- located along the ureter, but outside his lume;
- caused by deflection in the position and time of the ureter;
- existing in the lumen of the ureter itself or in the cavity of the pelvis;
- located in the wall of the ureter or lochank.
One of the frequent causes of hydronephrosis is the so-called
AddA waste vessel going to the lower pole of the kidney and squeezing
urineNick in the place of removal of him from Lohanka. The role of an additional vessel
in the development of hydronephrosis is expressed as in mechanical
compression and in the effectsWi at his nervous muscular
Lohang and ureteral segmenTA. As a result of constant
mutual and as a result of thisTelful reaction around
Extreme vessel and ureter are formed and scars creating
Fixed beggars or groan-ureter
segment, and on the place of pressure on the ureter in it there is a scar
SU fabricHis lifestyle. Obstacles to urine outflow,
Layout of the ureter and pelvis, can be valves and
Spurs on their mucous membrane, the narrowing of the ureter, the tumor of pelvis and
ureter, stones, diverticul.
What are the complications in hydronephrosis
Dangerous hydronephrosis occurrence of renal failure.
The kidney ceases to work in connection with which death can come from
Incixation of the exchange products - the increase in the residual content
nitrogen in the blood and other disorders of homeostasis, which are in normal
Together with urine.
Another dangerous hydronephrosis - a urolithiasis may occur, as well as to join the infection (pyelonephritis), which in turn can aggravate the course of the disease. Particularly dangerous kidney hydronephrosis during pregnancy.
Hazardous complication of hydronephrosis is a spontaneous rupture of a locher or a cup. In this state, urine is poured directly into the retroperitoneal space.
How to diagnose hydronephrosis
With the slightest suspicion of the first degree hydronephrosis, it is necessary to apply the methodDC diagnostics confirming the diagnosis determining the cause aroseThe news of the hydronephrosis that find out the stage of its development;
- A comprehensive examination should be conducted: blood tests, urine.
The study of the kidneys - allows you to determine the increase and size of the pelvis
and kidney cups, the degree of their expansion, the thickness of the kidney fabric.
- Radiographic study of the kidney - the main method of diagnosis of hydronephrosis.
Review Radiograph makes it possible to determine the sizes of the kidneys and
detect stones if they are. On a series of intravenous urograms
It is possible to note the slow motion of the contrasting solution in
Extended Lohank (Lohanks) and Cups. On the urograms are visible
Expanded, Rounded Shape Lohanka, Extended Cups. At
significant violation of the kidney function Contrast solution can
accumulated in sufficient concentration only after 1- 2 h or not at all
stand out with a sick kidney.
- To determine the degree of violation of the kidney function, radioisotope examination and kidney scan.
- To clarify the diagnosis, angiography, computer and magnetic-sensuous tomography is possible.
How is hydronephrosis treatment
In the hydronephrosis of the kidneys, treatment should be aimed at eliminating the cause, causingthe development of hydronephrosis, if necessary, a decrease in sizemokejlink and kidney saving.
Conservative treatment is usually ineffective and applied only when
inflammatory process in kidneys, to relieve pain, to reduce
blood pressure, symptoms of renal failure and
Used as preparation for the operation.
Among the various methods of surgical treatment are the most common
Reconstructive, organ-powered operations. Reconstruction methods
a lot and the type and volume of the operation depends largely on what
The disease caused hydronephrosis, and the forecast for
Life of the patient.
Indication to plastic operations are those stages of single and double-sided hydronephrosis, in which the Parenhim function in lowaccurately preserved, and the reason that caused the disease can beRanna.
In the hydronephrosis, the postoperative period is difficult, therefore it is resorted to the removal of the kidney when the kidney function is practically
Lost, and the preservation of kidney is dangerous due to possible complications. More often
This operation is performed by elderly patients. Of great importance in the hydronephrosis of the kidney has a diet.