With each heartbeat occursprogressive reduction of its parts - first the atria and then the ventricles. These cuts follow each other at regular intervals. Arrhythmia called frequency disturbances, rhythm and sequence of the heart rate.
Causes of atrial fibrillation
In a healthy person can provoke arrhythmiaabundant food, constipation, tight clothing, insect bites, certain medications, stress. High risk of arrhythmias in people with diabetes, especially if it is combined with obesity and high blood pressure. Arrhythmias can occur at a harmless occasions, for example, premenstrual syndrome in women is often accompanied by arrhythmias, pain in the heart, a feeling of suffocation.
A predisposition to arrhythmias may be inherited, or may be a complication after heart surgery. Moreover, arrhythmia can be a symptom of a variety of diseases:
- heart disease, heart failure, ischemic heart disease;
- mitral valve prolapse;
- thyroid disease and a number of other hormonal disorders.
Consistency of the heart is providedspecific cardiac conduction system. These are specialized cells that generate and conduct electrical impulses guiding coordinated contraction of the heart muscle.
The pulse trigger contraction of the heart,is generated in the right atrium, the so-called the sinus node (pacemaker). It is this unit is responsible for the fact that the heart beats at a frequency of 60-90 beats per minute. Then, apply a signal to the rest of the atria, causing them to cut, then to the ventricles. Disturbances in this system and cause heart rhythm disturbances (arrhythmias).
Depending on where in the violations occur, all divided by the arrhythmia and atrial ventricular.
If the heart rate is above 90 beats per minute,They talk about tachycardia. Heart rate can be increased under physical or emotional stress (this is a normal reaction of a healthy heart). Increased body temperature also causes tachycardia. It is believed that the increase in body temperature of 1 degree leads to an increase in heart rate of 10 beats. Tachycardia may be a symptom of many diseases, but may be the norm for this.
If the heart rate less than 60 beats per minute,say bradycardia. Bradycardia may also be in completely healthy people. It is usually seen in athletes. Moderate bradycardia creates favorable conditions for the blood supply to the heart muscle because the blood it can act only if it is in a state of relaxation (ie, between contractions).
From bradycardia should be distinguished bradisfigmiyu - a rare heart rate at a normal heart rate. Bradisfigmiya marked reduction if serdca not generate perceptible pulse waves.
If the correct heart ratewoven premature contraction, talk about the beats. The most common causes of arrhythmia are vegetative-vascular dystonia, myocardial myocarditis, gallbladder disease, smoking or stress.
In one of the most common -atrial fibrillation - lost one of the phases of the cardiac cycle - namely atrial contraction. Their muscle fibers lose their ability to operate synchronously. As a result, only the atrium randomly twitching - flicker. From this and the ventricles begin to contract erratically.
There are also so-called paroxysmalarrhythmias (paroxysm - attack, suddenly arisen state). We apparently healthy person suddenly appears very frequent palpitations - a rhythmic or irregular, trying to calculate the heart rate is simply impossible for an inexperienced person, it exceeds the rate of 150-200 beats per minute.
If the seizure lasts longer than an hour and a half hours,there are shortness of breath and pain in the heart. Often heart attack ends as abruptly as it had begun. The heartbeat stops, the person is required urgently to empty the bladder, and the urine is allocated a lot. If we assume arrhythmia danger signal, paroxysmal disorders are the most serious of them.
Cardiac arrhythmias when snoring and syndromeobstructive sleep apnea are very specific. At the time of cessation of breathing is developed bradycardia (slowing of heart rate), and the ventilation phase after apnea is marked tachycardia (accelerated heart rate). Sometimes the fluctuation range of 30-40 beats per minute, and these jumps may be repeated every minute, and even more often.
Those arrhythmias, which are characterized by rapid changethe frequency and regularity of the heart rate or to slow sharply, the work of the heart is disturbed significantly - so much so that reduces the volume of blood ejected into the aorta. And because the most sensitive to the "blood starvation" is the brain, the person may experience sudden severe dizziness or even lose consciousness.
The diagnosis of atrial fibrillation
Arrhythmia - this is not an independent disease, anddisease symptom. In principle, it can pass itself. But if the arrhythmia persists for several hours or any complications, you should immediately seek medical care.
However, even if the arrhythmia has disappeared by itself, should not be put off a visit to the cardiologist. Repeated violation of rhythm may occur at any time and end up very tragically.
The main symptoms of arrhythmia are feelingextra or skipped heart beats too fast or slow heartbeat. It is also possible feeling of weakness, fatigue, shortness of breath; People pale, there are pains in the heart and others.
To determine the cause of an arrhythmia physician arrhythmologyconducting ECG atropinovye sample - a method based on the removal of ECG after administration of atropine in a vein - the substance that causes the acceleration of the heart rhythm. In parallel, by exploring phonocardiography heart sounds and noises. In addition, carry out normal recording an electrocardiogram (ECG) of a person, the ECG is able to exercise, ECG monitoring during the day, and ultrasound of the heart - echocardiography.
Treatment of atrial fibrillation
Direction arrhythmology or cardiologist forheart rate recovery is performed transesophageal electrical stimulation - this method is also used to diagnose arrhythmias. If the arrhythmia is a constant symptom, and can not be cured by medicines, the person implanted pacemaker - artificial pacemaker.
If you suffer from bouts of arrhythmia, it should beensure that, whenever possible to alert them. For example, people suffering from arrhythmias, while solar activity - ie, magnetic storms - you need to carefully follow the instructions of doctors and always carry their medication.