Classification of cirrhosis stages carried out in several ways and is determined by a long and slow course of the disease, when there are several stages.
- Preclinical stage at which the damage small capillaries.
- Stage of clinical manifestations observed some destructive processes in the liver.
- Stage sharply marked clinical manifestations of this stage formation of connective tissue instead of dead liver cells, the signs of parenchymal necrosis.
- Stage complications: the emergence of regeneration nodes, foci of inflammation of different severity.
The peculiarity of the initial stages of cirrhosis of the liver -compensation and subcompensation is the possibility of lack of symptoms during the ongoing reorganization of the entire structure of the liver. Phase compensation is shown a lack of symptoms of the disease despite the fact that healthy hepatocytes are already operating in emergency mode. Subcompensation At the first signs of the disease, the resources run out of healthy cells and liver are not working at full strength.
Detect abnormal liver fails on the basis ofpatient complaints. Most often it is a question of fatigue, marked weight loss without any reasons, and loss of appetite, sleep disorders - drowsiness during the day and insomnia at night, frequent bacterial infections of the respiratory tract, reduced libido and gynecomastia development. Along with an increase in liver and seal marked splenomegaly - an enlarged spleen, a dull aching pain in the kidneys, especially weakness and fatigue after exercise. There are dyspeptic symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, pruritus noticeable due to the accumulation in the tissues of the bile acids, such phenomena arise in primary liver cirrhosis. It noted a significant loss of the patient's weight and dry skin with numerous scratching itchy. The sclera of eyes and mucosa become yellow, language acquires a bright pink color, the so-called "lacquer language." The occurrence of frequent bleeding the patient may result in bleeding disorders. At this stage, manifested portal hypertension syndrome - an important sign of cirrhosis, it is associated with increased pressure in the portal vein system.
Stage of decompensation characterized by a complete replacement of the parenchyma by fibrous tissue and the inability of the liver to perform its functions. Primary liver cirrhosis at decompensation stage may occur:
- severe weakness;
- bowel disorder and frequent vomiting;
- weight loss;
- atrophy of the muscles of the upper body and intercostal region;
The final stage of primary liver cirrhosis is characterized by the following complications.
- Varical bleedingesophagus. It should be noted that a dangerous and insidious is the absence of clear signs of varicose veins, symptoms completely unexpected for the patient and represents a clear threat to life.
- Gepatogennye ulcers in the stomach and duodenum 12 occur as a result of impaired blood flow intrahepatic.
- A characteristic feature of the decompensated stagecirrhosis of the liver - a tense ascites. The morphological alteration in the structure of the liver and lead to metabolic changes and exudation of fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity, which in turn can cause respiratory failure and cause death of the patient.
- Infectious complications of cirrhosis can occur with bacterial peritonitis, urinary tract infection, pneumonia.
- Hepatic encephalopathy and coma occur withinfringement of intellectual and mental activity, changes in speech, and a complete loss of interest in life. Hepatic encephalopathy, as well as liver cancer, can be fatal.
This stage of cirrhosis of the liver is considered to be reala threat to the patient's life, requires immediate treatment under the supervision of specialist gastroenterologists, internists, surgeons. Cure liver cirrhosis in the final stage it is impossible, but to prevent further development and to ensure a decent quality of life is possible and necessary.