Kidney Cancer Treatment

Content

  • Diagnosis of Kidney Cancer
  • Surgical treatment of kidney cancer
  • Drug treatment of kidney cancer


  • When the first complaints to palpate the tumor fails in 50-60%
    patients. Features palpation depends on the size of the tumor,
    its localization and state of the anterior abdominal wall. Pain in the upper quadrant
    on the affected side often observed with large tumors that
    with increasing stretch or compress the kidney capsule nerve
    trunks. The combination of all these symptoms that reveal
    10-20% of patients, usually indicates far come
    process. Because fever is more common extrarenal symptoms
    hypertension, polycythemia, anemia, hypercalcemia,
    hepatic dysfunction.



    Diagnosis of Kidney Cancer

    Diagnosis of renal cancer, the presence of
    modern methods of research, presents no particular difficulties.
    Laboratory methods are of secondary importance. Diagnosis
    It is primarily based on the results of ultrasound,
    X-ray, computed and magnetic resonance imaging. how
    Generally, the study begins with kidney excretion (iv) urography,
    which allows you to get an idea of ​​renal function and, in some
    cases, establish the presence of the bulk process. On tomograms reveal
    the scope and contours of the kidney, its relationship with the surrounding organs
    and tissues. At the same time, you can set the degree of spread
    tumor, i.e. to identify the spread of cancer in the region
    gate kidney, lymph nodes affected by the presence of thrombus and the bottom
    vena cava, liver metastases. Angiography (X-ray examination of the vessels with the introduction of contrast vesch Islands) should be performed
    Only if there are doubts in the diagnosis or surgeon
    interested in the blood supply to the tumor. Cavagraphy (contrast administration into the inferior vena cava through a femoral vein) is used for
    establishing the degree of tumor dissemination, wherein
    detect thrombi in the inferior vena cava and its compression and displacement of the tumor.



    Surgery

    kidney cancer

    The main
    and the only radical method of treatment is surgical
    intervention. Radiation and chemotherapy are of secondary importance.
    With regard to the indication nephrectomy cancer patients I, II and III stages
    There is a common opinion that if there is no generally accepted contraindications
    to surgical treatment, it is necessary to remove a kidney from fatty tissue
    and lymph nodes with metastasis. With regard to cancer patients
    Stage IV, in each case requires individual approach.

    So,
    Stage IV kidney cancer patients whose condition remains
    satisfactory, should operate if they have a single
    metastases.

    It argued the feasibility of nephrectomy in patients with metastatic disease the following considerations:

    • Kidney Cancer Treatmentnephrectomy (removal of the affected kidney) It allows to eliminate the painful symptoms of the disease -
      stop pain, debilitating chills, appetite appears and many
      the patient's condition improved so that they can begin
      to work. Remission can last from 3-4 months to a year or more;
    • operation eliminates the complications associated with the collapse of the tumor, including massive bleeding and intoxication;
    • removing the bulk of the tumor and reducing the volume of the tumor mass, we are
      This increases the opportunities held in the subsequent chemotherapy
      and radiation treatment.

    Contraindications
    for surgery are extreme exhaustion of the body, swelling, massive
    multiple metastases, impaired function of the remaining kidney, heavy
    related diseases in which any contraindicated
    surgical intervention. The risk of surgery should not be higher
    normal. It should be emphasized that in determining readings
    for surgery in patients with metastatic disease, it is necessary to take into account the limited
    the possibility of subsequent drug and radiation therapy.

    In recent years, thanks to the improvement of
    diagnostic techniques in patients with small tumors became
    apply partial nephrectomy (partial excision of the affected organ). The direct indication for the implementation of this
    surgery is functional insufficiency of the remaining kidney or
    a tumor in the only functioning kidney. You can run
    kidney resection with good function of both kidneys, if the tumor is less than 3
    cm. However, it should be remembered that there is a probability of recurrence (recurrence, resumption)
    disease.


    Drug treatment of kidney cancer


    Efficiency
    Medicinal treatment of kidney cancer and its metastasis to the present
    time remains low. The most effective should be recognized
    immunotherapy. Use of a-interferon drugs (Nitron-A,
    IFN, Roferon, vellferon) allows you to get up to 30-35% of the total
    and partial tumor regressions. Regression exposed, as a rule,
    single, small lung metatazy sizes. The effect of
    a drug interferon can sometimes manifest itself in a few
    months after initiation of therapy.

    Treatment should be carried out continuously,
    without interruption and after the regression. interferon preparations
    have side effects such as hyperthermia, muscle pain,
    sometimes - loss of weight. On the effectiveness of interferon at
    kidney cancer metastases may compete only IL-2 but
    the drug has severe side effects and high cost.

    From cytostatics in renal cancer are effective
    drugs like vinblastine, vincristine, CCNU (lomustine), bleomycin,
    cisplatin, etoposide, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, hydroxyurea.
    The effectiveness of combination therapy - 15-20%.

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