Clonorchiasis widely distributed in China, Japan, the Korean Peninsula. In Russia, found in the Amur River basin. Mature forms of parasites in humans and fish-eating mammals.
Sources of infection
Intermediate hosts klonorha in two: the first shellfish «Bithyniiadae» family, and the second - the fish of the carp family, which are the source of the disease to humans.
Ways of infection clonorchiasis
Infections of humans and animals occurs by eating raw, frozen, salted and insufficiently heat treated infested (infected), fish and shellfish.
The forms of existence
Metaschistosome klonorha (infective larvae stage)Entering the human gastrointestinal tract,freed from its shell and penetrates into the gallbladder and pancreas, where it dwells. The eggs of the parasite in the bile and pancreatic juices enter the intestine and are excreted in the faeces. egg hit the water ingested by the parasite in fish and shellfish. Man eats contaminated fish, and dissemination klonorha cycle continues. The life of the parasite is 25 years or more.
- In the acute stage, 2-4 weeks after invasion(infection), there is a fever, a rash appears, the level of eosinophils in the blood rises, which is determined by the toxic and allergenic effect of enzymes and vital products of the larvae. Cough, chest pain, jaundice appears. The duration of the acute stage is 1-6, usually 2-4 weeks.
The chronic stage is characterized by a lesion.bile ducts, while the tonus of the gallbladder decreases, spasm and swelling of its ducts occur, the flow of bile into the intestines (cholestasis) and the pancreas are disrupted. There are pains in the right hypochondrium in the epigastrium and along the intestines, nausea, bloating.
The effects of parasitism in the body
The first object of settling the liver is more likely. Klonorh as all flukes, tissue embedded in the liver, blood filtering, and feeds it. In this general intoxication develops rising bilirubin level in the blood, decreased blood protein, myocarditis, pulmonary infiltrates, pneumonia develops.
Methods of diagnosis clonorchiasis
Diagnosis of acute mounted on clonorchiasisBased on clinical, epidemiological history data (for example, stay in the regions spread clonorchiasis), confirmed by parasitological studies on helminth eggs in feces, duodenal contents (possibly discover through 1-1.5 months after the invasion).
The treatment takes place in three stages, as in epistorhoze. Degelmintezatsiyu carried out with praziquantel.
Prevention consists in the removal of fishcarp species by salting, thermal treatment (thorough provarivaniya or frying), prevention of discharge and flushing of sewage and industrial uncleared fish waste into bodies of water, use of molluscicides.