The concept of compression therapy
History compression treatment of venous diseaseslower limbs has its roots in the mists of time. The oldest known evidence of this are the images of dancing people with bandages on the feet that have been found in the area of the Sahara desert. The age of these petroglyphs is at least 4,000 years. Bandages were also known in ancient Egypt. Meanwhile, in ancient times, Jews, Greeks and Romans used compression treatment for venous leg ulcers. According to Hippocrates, even on the local compression with the help of special jaws.
Currently compression therapycomplex treatment of chronic venous insufficiency of the lower limbs is a key element. It is indicated for any degree of venous insufficiency regardless of its cause. Virtually the only contraindication to elastic compression are chronic obliterating diseases of lower limb arteries.
Varieties of compression bandages
All compression bandages are divided into three groups:
- Bandage with a short elongation increase its length by no more than 70%
- bandages average elongation elongated within 70-140%
- Bandage long length increase extensibility of more than 140%
The therapeutic effect of a compression bandage is largely determined by the properties of the material from which it is formed. The following parameters are introduced to its technical characteristics:
- resting pressure - a force with which the bandage or compression stockings put pressure on leg muscles are relaxed when
- operating pressure - a force which presses the bandage on the leg with muscle contraction
It is obvious that in order to achieve therapeuticeffect compression bandage most suitable bandages, providing high operating pressure at a low pressure at rest. This bandages short and medium extensibility. Bandages used for long extensibility fixing multilayer compression bandages or for prophylaxis of hematomas and bleeding immediately after surgery on the saphenous veins of the lower extremities.
Features of the use of a compression bandage
Rules of formation of a compression bandage bandages:
- bandage is applied with dorsiflexion of the foot, which prevents the formation of folds in the ankles as the folds can damage the skin when moving
- dressing should reach the proximal joints of the toes and heel capture
- bandage pressure should gradually fade from the ankle to the proximal direction
- when applying the bandage roll bandage unwind outside, while he is in the immediate vicinity of the skin
- you need to simulate a cylindrical profile limb by applying to the flat parts (foot rear okololodyzhechnye fossa) or latex foam pillows
- the imposition of a compression bandage should match the shape of the legs, that is. e. when the conical shape of the bandage tours should go to the upstream and downstream
When correctly applied compression bandage inalone fingertips lightly turn blue, and in the early walk restore its normal color. Compression bandages are changed daily or impose a long-term (up to 2 months).
Medical compression stockings in the treatment of thrombophlebitis
When compression therapy is usedspecial medical jersey. The essence of the method of creation of external pressure to compensate for the increased hydrostatic pressure and tissue at thrombophlebitis to reduce stagnation and the preservation of the normal vein diameter.
Modern compression hosiery provides an accurate graded pressure distribution with decreasing compression from the foot to the thigh.
Medical compression stockings compared to traditional elastic bandaging has significant advantages:
- physiological pressure distribution is independent of patient or physician skill and programmed in machine knitting products
- not require medical participation (except for the choice of compression grade)
- there is no need to simulate a cylindrical profile limb, since it takes into account the anatomical features in the manufacture of compression products
- meets aesthetic requirements
- It creates favorable conditions for water and temperature balance of the skin limb
- you can select the optimum pressure in accordance with the compression product class
Compression hosiery is more convenient inapplication and mechanism of action is the same as that of the elastic bandages correctly superimposed. At the moment of the elastic knitwear items are divided into 4 classes (depending on the degree of compression)
- Grade 1 - 18,4-21,2 mm Hg
- Grade 2 - 25,1-32,1 mm Hg
- Grade 3 - 36,4-46,5 mm Hg
- Grade 4 - above 59 mm Hg
Selection of the required compression hosiery products are manufactured under the guidance of a doctor, based on the specific disease and the patient's individual anatomy.