Bitingly satirical talent of Jean Baptiste Moliere,satirizes the amusement of the audience of contemporary physicians, does not cause a smile in Paris who lived a century later the therapist and neurologist Maurice Raynaud. On the contrary, he was sorry for colleagues, wanted to prove that even in those days it was not all bad medicine contrary to the assertions of the great playwright. After all Reynaud took and wrote in the hearts of the book "Doctors times of Moliere," which is so like the pundits of Paris, they honored the author's PhD. And on merit - indeed, Reynaud was not only a talented practitioners, but also erudite philosopher and historian of medicine. If he further went on to write books on history and philosophy, today his name would hardly remember anybody except the narrow circle of specialists. Meanwhile, it has become a part of the medical lexicon. In memory of descendants Reynaud was due to writings on very specific disease, where it was first described in detail and systematized the signs of circulatory disorders in the small arteries of the hands and feet, which gradually progresses can lead to gangrene of the fingers over time. Contemporaries considered a full description so that the author's name appeared strongly related to the disease itself - the term "Raynaud's disease" has become common.
Until now, no one knows exactly why there isRaynaud's disease. It is known that most of it happens in young women, but the sick men. The first attacks may occur after an infection or exposure to precipitating factors - fatigue, hypothermia, excessive sunbathing. The development of Raynaud's disease is possible as a result of a brain injury or severe emotional distress. In favor of the neurological nature of the disease and said symmetrical lesions: manifestations of the disease almost simultaneously capture the same portions of the right and left. But a certain importance and exercise on your fingers - the disease occurs more often in typists, pianists.
An important contributing factor is considereddue to hereditary characteristics of vascular response to various external circumstances. Even in similar situations in different people the vessels react differently - someone blush with excitement, some pale.
But symptoms similar with the symptoms of diseaseReynaud observed in diseases of the endocrine glands, nervous system, weakening of the immune system, as well as chronic poisoning with salts of lead and mercury, prolonged exposure to harmful factors such as vibration. In these cases, vascular disorders may be among the earliest and most important symptoms.
The cause of the disease lies in themselvesarteries - more precisely in their walls. Arteries - not just a tube for pumping blood. Blood flow is regulated by a wall located in their muscle fibers. From usual muscle they differ at least by the fact that almost did not get tired. Some of them do is always in a state of tension. This phenomenon is called vascular tone. If there is a need for additional blood flow, the muscle fibers relax, the lumen of the arteries expand and blood flow increases.
Of course, the artery is not itself determines howBlood must flow through it at one time or another: the leading role in the regulation of vascular tone belongs to the nervous system. The case is very responsible if relax the walls of "excess" of the arteries, the total capacity of the vascular bed may increase so much that the body simply does not have enough blood to fill it.
When Raynaud's disease is a sharp increasetone particular groups arteries. Much of the responsibility for this lies with the violation of the nervous regulation, but may be partly to blame for the vessels and muscle fibers - perhaps they too begin to rapidly respond to the "over" command. It is also possible that in the body there are impostors-agent pretending messengers of the nervous system and encourage cheating gullible muscles to contract. Whatever it was, eventually develops a spasm of the arteries - their lumen is narrowed so that the blood does not flow almost to the supply of tissues.