Brucellosis - a disease characterized by the lesion of the musculoskeletal system, nervous, sexual and other systems.
Sustainable in external environment. In water they persist over 2 months in
milk - 40 days, in Brynze - 2 months, in the raw meat - 3 months, in
Sloated - up to 30 days, in wool - up to 4 months. Brucella dying as
Heating and under the influence of many disinfectants.
Patient person healthy brucella is not transmitted. Reservoir I
The source of infection is pets (sheep, goats, cows,
Pigs, less often dogs).
Sick Animal Infection
occurs contact, food and air routes. Contact contact
the way is particularly often happening when the skin of the spindle
Liquids (Help with hotels, lambs, when care for newborn
calves, lambs). Veterinary workers are often infected,
Veneers, Shepherds and DR. Infection can come and in contact with
Meat infected animals, with manure. Brucella penetrate through
The slightest skin damage. Food infection often occurs through
Raw milk, as well as in the use of dairy products (cheese, cheese,
oil). Air infection can occur when
The respiratory tract of dust containing brucella (in the places of grazing and in the pens
For the content of sheep), as well as in laboratories in violation of technology
Security. This way of infection is observed relatively rarely.
More often ill faced persons-bodied age (18 ~ 50 years). IN
Most cases are a professional disease.
How brucellosis is manifested
occurs when entering the body from 10 microbes. Gate infection
are microtrauma leather, mucous membranes of digestive organs and
respiratory tract. At the site of the gate of infection of any changes
develops. On the lymphatic paths of brucella reach lymphatic
nodes. The reproduction and accumulation of microbes when brucellosis occurs
mainly in lymph nodes, from which brucella periodically
Enroll in blood. For brucellosis, pronounced allergic
Perestroika organism. Brucellosis is a tendency to chronic
the flow, which is associated with a long stay of Brucell in the body.
After transferred brucellosis, immunity is formed, but it is not very
Long and after 3-5 years may re-infection. Not everyone
infection leads to the development of the disease. Response reaction depends,
Probably from the state of the immune system. Some people have infection
proceeds without any manifestations, others develop a stormy
the infectious process or from the very beginning proceeds as chronic.
Streets with a very weak immunity, even a living brucellular vaccine can
cause a reaction resembling brucellosis disease.
The period in the acute principle of brucellosis can last about 3 weeks,
However, incubation can last several months.
The form is characterized by a high fever (39-40°C and higher). In spite of
High and very high body temperature, patient well-being
It remains good (at temperatures 39°C and above the patient can read
books, play chess, watch TV and t. D.). This form
brucellosis does not threaten the life of the patient, even without treatment, she
Ends by recovery.
Chronic forms are characterized
Syndrome of general intoxication (weakness, headache). To common
Signs can be attributed to a long-term low temperature, weakness,
Increased irritability, bad sleep, appetite impairment, reduction
performance. Almost all patients have an increase
Lymph nodes. Often the increase in the liver and spleen is revealed. On this
The background detected lesions of the joints, nervous and sexual systems. At
Brucellosis can be other lesions (pneumonia, myocardits,
eye lesions and other.), but they are observed less.
The musculoskeletal system is the most frequent manifestation
chronic brucellosis. Patients complain of pain in the muscles and joints,
Mainly in large. More often brought knee, elbow,
Shoulder, hip joints, rarely - small joints of brush and stop.
Joints swell, mobility in them is limited, leather over them, like
rule normal coloring. Violation of mobility and deformation
The joints are due to the growth of bone tissue. Amazed
spine, more often in the lumbar department.
Systems in chronic brucellosis manifests itself most often by neurites,
Polynevrit, radiculitis. The defeat of the central nervous system
(Mielites, meningitis, encephalitis, meningoencephalitis) are rarely observed,
But it takes a long and pretty hard.
Men system manifest themselves in orchitis, epididimitis, reducing sexual
Functions. Women have salpintingitis, endometritis.
Amenorrhea arises, infertility may develop. Pregnant women
Abortions often occur, stillbirth, premature birth,
congenital brucellosis in children.
Sometimes eye changes are observed
(Irites, chorioretinites, uveitis, keratitis, atrophy of the optic nerve and
Dr.). With aerogenic infection, sluggishly currently develops
Brucellious pneumonia that are unsuccessfully treated with antibiotics. Maybe
Be myocardits, endocardits, aortages and other lesions
of cardio-vascular system.
How to diagnose brucellosis
Confirmation of brucellosis is significantly limited by brucella
relate to dangerous pathogens whose allocation can be conducted
only in special laboratories equipped in accordance with
Prevention requirements. In serological and aldergological
Research should be borne in mind that in grafted against brucellosis
(risk groups, professionally contact with animals)
there may be quite a long time positive results as
serological reactions and especially allergic samples.
From serological reactions The most informative is the reaction of agglutination (reaction of Wright).
The sharp form of brucellosis antibodies begin to be detected on the 2nd
the week of illness and in the future the titer is growing them. Allergic test
becomes positive at the end of the 1st and on the 2nd week. With chronic
antibody titer of antibodies often can not be identified. Follow
It may be borne in mind that setting an allergic sample (BURNING) may
lead to the appearance of antibodies or towers. Other
serological reactions (RSK, RPGA, OFP) are less informative compared
with the reaction of Wright and do not have a significant value. Negative
The results of the Burnech will eliminate brucellosis (except
HIV-infected people who disappear all the RZT reactions).
How brucellosis is treated
and methods of treatment depend on the form of brucellosis. Antibiotic therapy maybe
give an effect only with a sharp (acute) form of brucellosis, with
Chronic forms The appointment of antibiotics plays an appropriate role,
The main value is vaccine therapy.
(acute) Brucellize form must be prescribed antibiotics in pretty
Large doses. Insufficient doses and premature cancellation of drugs
determine development in the further chronic form of brucellosis.
Antibiotics need to be given continuously. Tetracycline - 0.5 g through
6 hours for 3-6 weeks, during the first 2 weeks, in addition,
Used streptomycin (intramuscularly) at a dose of 1 g after 12 hours.
Tetracycline is contraindicated in pregnant women and children up to 8 years. At
the inability to use the above scheme can be assigned
Biseptol (co-trimoxazole) for 6 tablets per day for 4 weeks.
Biseptol Rifampicin combination (900 mg per day) gives the best
results. When conducting a full course of recurrences, rarely observed.
Vitamins are prescribed.
Antibiotics in chronic forms
It turned out to be ineffective. The main role in these forms is playing
Purpose of drugs with nonspecific and specific
Desensitizing effect. In chronic forms most
Effective vaccine therapy, which is not only
Desensitizing event, but also stimulates immunity.
Assign a complex of vitamins, nonspecific blood-forming stimulants
(pentoxyl, nucleic sodium, metacyl). In winter
It is necessary to carry out general ultraviolet irradiation.
Antihistamines are used (Pipolfen, Supratin and DR.). At
pronounced inflammatory changes (orchit, neuritis and others.) Appoint
Corticosteroid preparations (40-50 mg of prednisolone for 2-3
Weeks or comparable doses of other corticosteroids).
Specific desensitization and increase immunity use
Vaccinotherapy. With a pronounced allergic restructuring
used brucellin, but most often special (killed) therapeutic
Vaccine. Live vaccine prescribed only with prophylactic purposes.
Different methods of introducing vaccine are proposed: intravenous,
intramuscular, subcutaneous and intradermal. It must be remembered that
Inaccurate vaccine dosage can lead to exacerbation of the disease (with
overdose) or to the absence of a pronounced effect (with insufficient
dose). In this regard, the choice of the introduction method and calculation of individual
doses plays a big role.
Received the greatest distribution
subcutaneous and intradermal administration of vaccine. Subcutaneously prescribed vaccine
With a worsening of the flow of brucellosis and with a pronounced process. Important
The principle of vaccine therapy is the individual selection of the dose of the drug.
To some extent on the severity of the reaction judged by the intensity of the sample
Burne. Subcutaneous administration more often start with 10-50 million microbial cells.
If the local and general reaction is absent, then the vaccine in the increased dose
introduce the next day. For treatment, choose such a dose that
Causes a moderate reaction. The following injection of vaccine makes only
After the reaction to the previous introduction of the vaccine disappears.
A one-time dose at the end of the course is adjusted to 1-5 billion microbial
Intradermal vaccine therapy is more gentle.
This method is used in the compensation stage, as well as when switching
Diseases in the latent form. In terms of severity, the skin reaction is selected
Working breeding of the vaccine (it should cause a local reaction in the form of
Redness of the skin with a diameter of 5 to 10 mm). Vaccine introduced intradermal in
Palular surface of the forearm on the first day of 0.1 ml in 3 places,
Then they add 1 injections every day and bring to the 8th day to 10
Injections. If the reaction to the vaccine decreases, then take more
It should be borne in mind that even when
full disappearance of all clinical manifestations, in 20-30% later
may occur aggravation of the disease.