Cervical cancer is the second leadingcancer in women. According to statistics from the World Health Organization in 2006, cervical cancer mortality rates of up to 270 000, which is 8% more than in 2005. Every year revealed more than 500 000 new cases, 90% of which - in developing countries. In developed countries, the incidence rate is reduced due to effective diagnosis and prevention programs.
Currently, about 1,500 women SwitzerlandIt suffers from this disease, and every year the country registered 250 new cases of cervical cancer and about 100 deaths. Half - women up to 50 years, and a quarter - up to 40. In relation to the world statistics, these data are at the middle level, and the forecast is quite favorable, 70% of the patients are still alive five years. In Russia, for example, cervical cancer 35 women die every day.
Cervical cancer begins with asymptomaticprecancerous lesions, or so-called dysplasia, which can develop many years before moving directly into the cancer. In the early stages of precancer shown laser treatment or surgical removal of the cervix. If cancer is diagnosed, the patient is at stake life followed by heavy surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Do not talk about heavy tolerability of this treatment and the long period of recovery.
Normal annual gynecological smear (PAP-test)It is the most common method of diagnosis and the early precancerous diseases. Experts say that if the first 3 annual smears were negative, the subsequent diagnosis can be carried out once every three years. If a smear (PAP-test) is suspicious, do colposcopy (cervix through an optical magnification), taken a biopsy (a small piece of tissue from the cervix), and followed by PCR analysis - a method that is able to determine the presence in the body of the virus, contributing to the development of cervical cancer.
It is the human papilloma virus (HPV, or HPV),who was known to the doctors of ancient Greece and in detail described by Hippocrates. At the moment, it found that the main cause of cervical cancer lies in the virus.
Human papilloma virus is sexually transmittedby contact with a male carrier or delivery. Its incubation period lasts from 1 to 5 months. He may then disappear, then re-emerge. In total, there are about a hundred species of human papilloma virus, but so far only known two major malignant virus that can cause 70% of cervical cancer - is the oncogenic HPV16 and HPV18. It oncogenic viruses found in 100% of cases of invasive cancer.
Will the virus is dangerous or not, to determine in advanceIt can not be known that only 3.5% of women in the tumor occurs. The others may develop benign warts, or "ano-genital warts," regressing in 15-17% of cases. Responsibility for them in 90% of cases are 2 main kinds of non-oncogenic virus - HPV6 and HPV11. But it must be borne in mind that the virus can occur and asymptomatic.
If it is a poison (or virus), it is logical,and that there must be an antidote (ie, vaccine). And this unique vaccine already exists and that it is a means of preventing the virus papillomavirus and therefore cervical cancer.
Studies have shown that the effectiveness of the vaccinecan be absolute only in women who have not had contact with HPV16 / 18, that is, never had sexual intercourse. This is possible only in girls prior to puberty, which, in turn, depends on the cultural characteristics of their country of residence and social status. That's why parents should think about the vaccination process early enough. Vaccine efficacy is reduced by 39% in women who had an infection with human papillomavirus before, and it really is not effective if precancer already exists. In Switzerland, the indication for vaccination against the human papilloma virus is the age of girls from 11-14 years. Girls 15 to 19 years old can still be vaccinated up to 2012. After 19 years, the approach is individual in each case, up to 26 years.
The Geneva cantonal vaccination programagainst the human papilloma virus has been created with the assistance of the General Directorate of Health and the Department of Economics and allows for the free vaccination of girls between 11 and 19 years. This can be done at the attending physician, gynecologist or pediatrician involved in the program at the Geneva Cantonal Hospital or school. The first successful vaccination in the canton of Geneva was held in 2007 and 1200 touched the girls. Since 2012, vaccination will be free only until the age of 15. If devushkeuzhe 20 years old, then it is the time to make the vaccine free of charge - up to June 2009
On the Swiss market using the vaccine,It protects against four major types - HPV16,18,6 and 11 - and includes three doses in a period of 6 months to a year. Protect the vaccine is present in the body for 5 years after vaccination. Duration it is not certain, and perhaps in the future will need to re-vaccination. There is evidence that the vaccine can work 10 years and even a lifetime. Attack of the vaccine is aimed solely at the tumor tissue. It is well tolerated, has few side effects, which has been proven by numerous clinical studies and pharmacological control, conducted in Europe and the US and based on the study of multi-million dollar vaccination. The vaccine is injected intramuscularly into the brachial or femoral region. Contraindication is known allergy vaccine components, and if the patient is in an acute infection process.
Studies related to the vaccination of boys,They are at the development stage, so the effectiveness of the vaccine virus in the tolerability man has not yet been proved. Man carrier of the virus may have genital / anal warts, which rarely give rise to cancers of the anus, rectum or penis.
It must be remembered that the vaccine protectsonly 70%, and only the above types of HPV, and the rest is a lot of these viruses continues to exist and evolve. The vaccine does not protect against the development of cervical cancer, but reduces the risk of its occurrence. It is intended solely to prevention of cervical cancer, rather than its cure. Therefore diagnosis (smear and / or PCR analysis) should not be stopped, and a visit to a gynecologist should be regular.
Are there other ways of virus preventionhuman papillomavirus? Certainly. These include the systematic use of a condom, although it may not be completely effective because virus particles may be present on the skin and mucous membranes of the genital area; reconsideration age of first intercourse and limiting the number of sexual partners, as well as to prevent all states, weaken our body: stress, vitamin deficiency, immunodeffitsita and disruption of normal vaginal flora. After all, for the development of the virus and the onset of symptoms is needed malfunction in the body, leading to active cell division, and in turn to a large accumulation of the virus, and this is possible only with a decrease in immunity. So treat carefully to their health and the health of your children.