What is a heart attack
- What is a heart attack? - Says cardiologist Saltanat Zhubanov. - The picture is as follows. Myocardium - is the heart muscle. In the coronary arteries it enters the blood. If any of these arteries occludes blood clot - thrombus or atherosclerotic plaque, the portion of the heart, which feeds it remains without blood supply, and thus no oxygen. "Starved" of myocardial cells can live no longer for 20-30 minutes. Then they die, this is a heart attack, necrosis area in the heart tissue. On the affected site is always a scar.
It all starts with atherosclerosis, when itfats deposited large arteries, mainly cholesterol, if contained in excess in the blood. In principle, the cholesterol - a necessary thing, because it consists of the cell membranes and hormones. More than half of the body produces itself, the rest comes from food. Excess cholesterol is deposited on the walls of blood vessels and forms plaques. If the lumen of blood vessels shrink by more than 50-70 percent of the people do not feel, but in a moment might happen to him a heart attack.
Plaque - the most vulnerable spot in the vascularwall. Especially if it is "young" and it had not yet deposited calcium. In the most unexpected moment wall plaques, and hence the inner membrane of the heart artery can burst, overstrain. For the body is an alarm. Cracks it tends to heal the blood clot. Therefore, the damaged spot immediately begins to clot blood. Clot formation resembles a rolling snowball from the mountain. If he does not interfere, the clot is growing very rapidly until it closes the entire lumen of the artery. Then the blood flow through it ceases, cell death begins, and develops a myocardial infarction. The larger the artery, which closed the clot, the greater the myocardial cells die. Recently, myocardial infarction rapidly "younger". Today it is already affecting people, barely thirty stepped threshold.
However, in women younger than 50 years of a heart attack - largerarity. Before this milestone of their vessels are protected from atherosclerosis, estrogen and other sex hormones. However, with the onset of menopause women, conversely, fall ill more often than men. They also say that male pattern baldness is a kind of harbinger of a heart attack as a factor in the appearance of baldness is an increased level of androgens, as in the case of hormonal fluctuations body reacts to changes in hormone levels rise in blood pressure and increased cholesterol levels in the blood.
How to find it
- The first sign of allowing suspectedheart attack usually becomes violent chest pain, that is in the middle of the chest, - said Saltanat Zhubanov. - Usually at rest: crushes, burns, compresses, can be given in the arm, shoulder, back, jaw, neck. Therefore, if at least one of these symptoms immediately call "ambulance." The ability to endure in this case - a dangerous enemy. Only in the first few hours, introducing the special preparations can be dissolved "fresh" blood clot and restore blood flow in a coronary artery. Then should prevent the formation of new blood clots. To do this, use medications that slow blood clotting. One of the most reliable means - acetylsalicylic acid, that is, ordinary aspirin. It reduces the number of complications and prolongs the life of those who have suffered a heart attack.
Often used in the treatment of beta-blockers. These drugs decrease myocardial oxygen demand, and thus save heart muscle cells from death, reduce the size of necrosis. At the same time they make the heart work more economical that myocardial very important. By the way, sometimes the disease manifests itself by vomiting or abdominal discomfort, disruption of the heart or shortness of breath, loss of consciousness or ... anything. Yes, it does happen: a man suffered a heart attack, even without realizing it. The so-called painless form of myocardial infarction is more common in people with diabetes.
In the first days after myocardialrequired strict bed rest. At this time, the damaged heart can not withstand even the minimum load. Previously, a person had a heart attack did not rise from the bed a few weeks. Today, bed rest period significantly reduced. But still, at least three days after a heart attack have to lie in bed under the care of doctors. Then allowed to sit up later, go ... It starts recovery, adaptation to a new, "postinfarction" life.
First you need to know how much it is likely. More than any other risk to get him those who have close relatives - parents, grandparents - were suffering from heart disease or hypertension. Further there are smokers.
People suffering from physical inactivity and excess weight,"Suckle atherosclerosis" and is the main cause of heart attacks. By the way, if a person already has atherosclerotic plaques, but lead sedentary life, his blood is actively looking for workarounds and finds its way to the heart by the occluded vessel.
Myocardial "loves" men after 30, but starting with60 catches both sexes equally. Finally, a 3.4 fold increased risk of stroke in people suffering from diabetes or high blood pressure (140/90 mmHg over at any age).
On a note
Unconditional leaders in hazard within the meaning ofcholesterol - black and red caviar, liver and egg yolk: just a bit off - and the daily dose is captured. In one yolk, for example, - 200 mg of cholesterol. Slightly inferior, but also informative sausages.
Before you fry or cook the chicken, remove the skin from it - there's a lot of cholesterol. After cooking, remove useless - all the cholesterol in the meat.
20 g of alcohol daily lower cholesterol. A 100 g have the opposite effect.
Lowers cholesterol apples, garlic, beans, cauliflower and grapefruit.
What to do
- Take sublingual nitroglycerin tablet and 325 mg of aspirin.
- Lie down or even sit down.
- Immediately call "ambulance."
What not to do
- Take a few minutes more than two tablets of nitroglycerine, as well as any other drugs.
- Spending time on calls for consultations, what would you still receive medical treatment.