Hypertonic disease


Hypertonic diseaseHypertensive heart disease is one of the most
common diseases of the cardiovascular system. its characteristic
symptom - high blood pressure. The main causes of disease
They are endocrine disorders and malfunction of the nervous regulation of vascular tone.

Hypertensive heart disease - a pathology of cardiovascular
unit, which develops as a result of violation of higher functionality
centers of vascular regulation, renal and neurohumoral mechanisms.
Causes of hypertension (increased blood pressure), and organic
functional changes of heart, kidney and central nervous system.

The prevalence of hypertension among men and women about
is identical, it usually develops in people older than 40 years, but in some cases
It can occur even in adolescents. Hypertension accelerates and complicates the flow
atherosclerosis, contributes to dangerous complications.


The main symptom of essential hypertension - elevated
BP (blood pressure). The pressure rising sharply after physical or
psycho-emotional stress, returning to normal levels only
result antihypertensive agents. Normally, the pressure should not human
greater than 140/90 mm Hg. Art. If the rest at double the measurement of blood pressure
fixed value of systolic index of more than 140-160 mm Hg. Art. and diastolic
- Over 90-95 mm Hg. Art. for two medical examinations, the patient
the diagnosis "hypertension".

development mechanism

Hypertonic diseaseThe pathogenesis of the disease is the increase in volume
cardiac output per minute and increased vascular resistance
peripheral channel.

As a result, stress and other reasons may be violated
regulation of peripheral vascular tone from the higher centers of the brain
brain (medulla, and hypothalamus). Emerged spasm of arterioles in the periphery
It causes the formation of dyscirculatory and dyskinetic syndromes.
There is an increase in secretion of neurohormones renin-angiotensin-aldosteronovoy
system. Participating in mineral metabolism in vascular aldosterone causes
a delay line with water and sodium, which contributes to further increase in
blood circulating in vessels and blood pressure.

blood viscosity increases, leading to decrease in speed
blood flow and tissue metabolism. Inert thickens the vessel walls,
narrows their lumen increases in total peripheral resistance level
vessels and hypertension becomes irreversible. As a result,
further increasing the level of permeability and plasmatic impregnation
vascular walls and arteriosclerosis develops ellastofibroz causing
secondary changes in tissues and leading to myocardial sclerosis, primary
nefroangioskleroz and hypertensive encephalopathy. In hypertensive
the degree of organ damage can be unequal because it allocates some
clinical and anatomical variants: c mainly affecting the heart, kidneys
and brain.


Classifi-pecifications</ H2>

Hypertensive heart disease is to classify according to the degree
the severity of organ involvement, the level of blood pressure, causes its rise,
characteristics of the disease and a number of other features.

By etiological basis of hypertension is divided

  • Essential (primary);
  • symptomatic (secondary).

By the nature of the disease course is:

  • benign (slow progressive);
  • malignant (rapidly progressive).

Depending on the level and stability of blood
Pressure distinguish the degree of hypertension:

  • I
    Degree: 140 / 90-159 / 99 mm Hg. CT .;
  • II
    Degree: 160 / 100-179 / 109 mm Hg. CT .;
  • III
    degree: more than 180/110 mm Hg. Art.

Stages</ H2>

Slowly progressive hypertension passes 3
the steps of:

Stage I (mild moderate) - is characterized by unstable
blood pressure, which may fluctuate within a daily range of
140/90 to 160-179 / 95-114 mm Hg. Art., hypertensive crises are rare and
It flows easily. Signs of internal organ involvement and no TSNC.

Stage II (severe) - blood pressure ranges
180-209 / 115-124 mm Hg. Art., are frequent hypertensive crises. can
observed: retinal arterial constriction, increased plasma kreatinina,
microalbuminuria, transient cerebral ischemia, hypertrophy of the left

Stage III (very heavy) - blood pressure rises to
200-300 / 125-129 mm Hg. Art. and above, there are often severe hypertensive
crises. Develop phenomenon entsefalopatii hypertension, left ventricular failure,
thrombosis of cerebral vessels, gemorragy, swelling of the optic nerve, dissecting
vascular aneurysm, nefroangioskleroz, renal failure and so forth.

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