However, prior to the start of drug treatmentheart failure is necessary to eliminate all possible factors that trigger its occurrence (fevers, anemia, stress, excessive consumption of salt, alcohol abuse, as well as the administration of drugs that promote fluid retention in the body, and others.).
The main focus of the treatment is done both on eliminating the causes of heart failure itself, and on the correction of its manifestations.
Treatment of heart failure
Among the general measures for cardiac treatmentfailure note rest. This does not mean that the patient must lie down all the time. Physical activity is permissible and desirable, but it should not cause significant fatigue and discomfort. If the load is considerably limited tolerance, the patient should be as large as possible to sit, rather than lie. In the absence of severe shortness of breath and swelling recommend walks in the fresh air. Keep in mind that the performance of physical exercise in patients with heart failure should be devoid of any elements of the competition.
Sleep is more convenient to patients with heart failurewith a raised head of the bed or on a high pillow. Patients with leg edema also recommend sleeping with a slightly raised foot end of the bed and planted his feet thin cushion that reduces the severity of edema.
The diet should be low in salt,cooked food should not be dosalivat. It is very important to reduce overweight, since it creates a significant additional burden on the diseased heart. Although far advanced heart failure, weight can be reduced by itself. For weight control and early detection of fluid retention in the body should be performed daily weigh-in at the same time.
At present, for the treatment of heart failure following medicines used to facilitate:
- enhance myocardial contractility;
- reduce vascular tone;
- reduction of fluid retention in the body;
- eliminate sinus tachycardia;
- prevention of thrombosis in heart cavities.
Among the drugs that increasemyocardial contractility, it may be noted already used for several centuries, the so-called cardiac glycosides (digoxin and others.). Cardiac glycosides increase cardiac pump function and urine output (diuresis), as well as contribute to a better exercise tolerance. Among the main adverse effects observed when they overdose, nausea note, the appearance of arrhythmias, changes in color perception. If in past years, cardiac glycosides administered to all patients with heart failure, it is now their time is prescribed primarily to patients with heart failure in combination with the so-called atrial fibrillation.
The medicines, which lowers the tonevessels carry so-called vasodilators (from the Latin words and vas dilatatio - «expansion vessel"). There are vasodilators with a primary effect on the arteries, veins and drugs in mixed (arterial + venous). I will mention some of them: captopril, enalapril, perindopril, lisinopril, ramipril. The most frequently reported side effect associated with the use of these drugs is a dry irritating cough ( "like a brush in my throat tickle"). This cough is not indicative of any new disease, but can disturb the patient. The cough may pass after a short discontinuation of the drug. But, unfortunately, that cough is the most common cause of discontinuation of the drug.
To reduce the delays in excess fluidVarious body administered diuretics (diuretics), characterized by the strength and duration of action. The so-called loop diuretics (furosemide, ethacrynic acid) begin to act very quickly after they are received. Due to the use of furosemide in particular, can be removed from a few liters of liquid in short time, especially when it is administered intravenously. Usually had dyspnea severity decreases directly "in front". The main side effects of drugs is to reduce the blood concentration of potassium ions that can cause weakness, seizures and disruptions of the heart.
To reduce heart rateapply the so-called β- (beta) adrenoblokatory. Due to the exerted effects of these drugs on the heart improves its blood circulation and, consequently, increases cardiac output. For the treatment of chronic heart failure, established β-blocker carvedilol assigned initially in minimal doses, eventually contributing to increase the contractile function of the heart. Unfortunately, a side effect of some β-blockers, in particular, the ability to cause bronchoconstriction and increase in blood glucose levels, may limit their use in patients with asthma and diabetes.
For the prevention of thrombus formation in the chambers of the heart and venous thromboembolism appoint so-called anticoagulants that inhibit the activity of the blood coagulation system.
attack Treatment of acute left ventriculardisease, in particular pulmonary edema is carried out in a hospital. But doctors "ambulance" can be administered medication, oxygen inhalation been established and carried out other urgent measures. The hospital started therapy will continue.
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