Doctor Aretaius came up with her name "diabetes" -Greek "flowing, I pass through." Scientist Celsus argued that in the occurrence of diabetes guilty indigestion, and the great Hippocrates put the diagnosis, the patient's urine sampling the taste.
By the way, the ancient Chinese knew, too, that whendiabetes urine becomes sweet. They came up with the original method of diagnosis using flies (and OS). If a fly sits on a saucer in the urine, so the urine is sweet, and the patient is sick.
What is diabetes?
Diabetes - a disease characterized by high blood sugar and urine sugar appearance. There are two types of diabetes.
Insulin-dependent diabetes (Type diabetes)It develops mainly in children and young people. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (Type II diabetes) usually develops in people over 40 years who are overweight. This is the most common type of disease (found in 80-85% of cases).
From what is diabetes? The development of type 1 diabetes is associated with impaired pancreatic work. It stops producing the hormone insulin - a substance that regulates blood sugar levels.
In type 2 diabetes insulin is produced, as expected, but the body's cells no longer perceive it.
To the question: "Why diabetes occurs" - scientists have so far found an answer. It is well established only one thing: diabetes can not be infected by contact with a sick person.
Provoke diabetes can ...
The bad heredity (diabetes have blood relatives); obesity; low physical activity; disruptions in the immunethose; pancreatic diseases (cancer,pancreatitis); viral infections (rubella, chicken pox, hepatitis and even the flu); stress; elderly age; abuse of alcohol and sweet; injuries of the brain and abdomen.
What's happening? As a result of a lack of insulin can bodyuse glucose, it accumulates in the blood. Excess glucose excreted in the urine, which leads to frequent urination. The loss of fluid causes increased thirst and drinking a lot of water.
Diabetes leads to disturbance of carbohydrate metabolism, and therefore suffer all the vital processes in the body.
Symptoms of diabetes
Rapid weight loss; dehydration;fatigue; weakness; a bad dream; itchy skin. Diabetes of the first type is sometimes seen a sharp deterioration in the state when it is pronounced weakness, pain in the abdomen, vomiting, a smell of acetone breath. These are signs of the approaching hyperglycemic coma. If it does not recognize the time, the patient may lose consciousness and die.
Type II diabetes usually develop gradually over time.
Diabetics have to be registered at the endocrinologist.
The following research carried out for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus:
Blood glucose (As a rule, carried out blood sampling from the finger): determining elevated glucose (hyperglycemia).
Analysis is necessary to take on an empty stomach. Test for glucose tolerance: fasting take about 75 grams of sugar (the exact amount prescribed by the physician), then the concentration of blood glucose at 0.5, 2 and 6 hours. On the day of the sample is advisable not to smoke, not to worry, not nreceive are some medicines (aspirin, corticosteroids).
Analysis of urine for glucose and ketone bodies: Detection of ketone bodies and glucose confirms the diagnosis of diabetes.
Determination of glycosylated hemoglobin (Venous blood) the amount significantly increased in patients with diabetes.
Determination of insulin and C-peptide in the blood. In the first type of diabetes the number ofinsulin and C-peptide is greatly reduced, and the second - possible values are within normal limits. For determination of glycated hemoglobin, insulin, C-peptide, blood collection performed out of the vein.
Treatment of diabetes
Includes: special diet - Is necessary to exclude sugar, alcoholic beverages,syrups, cakes, biscuits, grapes and figs. The food should be taken in small portions, better 4-5 times a day. Recommended products containing various sweeteners (aspartame, saccharin, xylitol, sorbitol, fructose, etc.). Daily use of insulin (insulin) - is necessary in patients with diabetes mellitus type first. The drug is available in a special pen with which is easy to do injections.
In the treatment of insulin alone must monitor blood glucose levels and urine (using special strips).
With tablets that can help reduce blood sugar levels usually begin treatment diabetes type. With the progression of the disease should be the appointment of insulin.
People suffering from diabetes are useful exercise. Therapeutic role of providing and weight loss in obese patients.
Treatment of diabetes is held for life. Self-control and strict compliance with the doctor's recommendations can avoid or significantly slow the development of complications of the disease.