Most often, amblyopia occurs in childhood. One reason for its appearance can be a difference in the sizes of the eyeball or absence of light access to the retina, such as cataract, corneal leukoma, gross changes in the vitreous.
Another reason may be the high level ofastigmatism or farsightedness in one eye. If the parent of the child brain gets a clear image from one eye, but on the other - is blurred, he starts to use the information from the first and ignore the fuzzy signal from the second eye. Also, quite often the cause of amblyopia is strabismus. But sometimes the disease occurs and "for no apparent reason." Causes are very individual. For example, one child amblyopia begins when the difference between the eye sight just one diopter, and the other the brain copes with the situation, even when the difference in the four diopters.
The principles of treatment of amblyopia
Treatment of amblyopia in children should begin withidentifying organic disorders, which may also accompany and strabismus and astigmatism, and farsightedness. Make it possible only with the use of the so-called method of determining the nature of visual perception at the level of the visual cortex - the study of visual evoked potentials (VEP). Like an electrocardiogram, SGP objectively reflect the work of neurons in the visual cortex.
Treatment of amblyopia in children is directly relatedtreatment of the disease, which led to its development. Treatment - a conservative, held against the backdrop of properly selected spectacle correction. Often, children in the treatment prescribed occlusion (sealing up) better seeing eye, but this is not enough. The complex treatment includes various types of stimulation - light, photo-stimulation, the stimulation frequency-contrast, etc. When strabismus and nystagmus at a certain stage of medical treatment carried out surgery on the eye muscles. When nystagmus after surgery amplitude nystagmus decreases, so visual acuity in further conservative treatment increases. When strabismus surgery is performed to restore the proper muscular balance between the muscles that move the eyes. This is necessary to restore binocular vision and eliminate the prerequisites for relapse in the treatment of amblyopia in children.
In general, treatment of amblyopia strategy boils down to four areas:
- vision correction with glasses or contact lenses
- stimulation (therapy) the macula ambliopiynogo eyes
- strabismus correction (if any)
- The formation and maintenance of binocular, stereoscopic vision