Acute toxicity and radiation gastroenteritis

Content

  • mushroom poisoning
  • Poisoning plants
  • Poisoning of fish and marine animals
  • Radiation (radiation) lesions of the intestine
  • The manifestation of intestinal radiation damage


  • Acute toxic gastroenteritis - poisoning toxins in foods of plant and animal origin.



    mushroom poisoning

    Acute toxicity and radiation gastroenteritisInedible mushrooms (pale toadstool, mushroom, etc.) Contain a substance muscarine. Already after a few minutes of their use appear lacrimation, salivation, sweating.

    Characterized as vomiting, diarrhea and crampingabdominal pain, after a while there is jaundice due to liver damage. Then develops a coma (complete or partial loss of consciousness), possible convulsions (sudden involuntary muscle contractions). Poisoning can result in death within a few hours, with proper treatment, recovery occurs during the 1st day. Poisoning of mortality exceeds 50%.

    When any kind of poisoning is an urgent needseek medical attention. At the same time it is important to have poisoned first aid. First, the patient must be laid on the bed. If the victim is conscious, rinse his stomach, a finger or a spoon handle pressing on the root of the tongue, induce vomiting. Gastric lavage is repeated 2-3 times (to clean wash water - 10-12 liters of cold water fractional 300-500 ml). With the development of seizures, it is important to avoid respiratory failure due to spasm of the masticatory muscles, so the victim's mouth, insert spoon stalks wrapped with a bandage or handkerchief. Apply a heating pad to the legs with cramps or cooling down.

    You can give the patient to drink in small sipscold salted water - one teaspoon of table salt to 1 cup water. Do not give the patient of alcoholic beverages, as they contribute to the spread of poison in the body. food residue, which used the sick or vomit must show a doctor for further investigation (before he came to collect in a jar, close, put in the refrigerator).



    Poisoning plants

    Many wild and garden plants and shrubs(Nightshade, some varieties of beans, nuts and chestnuts and others.) Contains the leaves and fruits of toxic substances. The leaves and tubers of Brussels sprouts contain solanine - a substance that can have him sensitive people cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and weakness. Cereals may be affected by a fungus containing ergotamine.



    Poisoning of fish and marine animals

    Many of the fish that inhabit the Pacific Ocean and poolswaters near Florida, the West Indies, in the process of life accumulate toxic substances. Fish poisoning associated with the contained toxins. Especially poisonous large old specimens of fish. Symptoms of poisoning appear a few hours after eating. Characterized by nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Often appear pruritus, paresthesia (numbness, tingling and pins and needles), headache, muscle aches, loss of temperature sensitivity. Some of these symptoms may last for several months, making human inoperable. At the use of rotten fish may histamine poisoning. Histamine is formed in large quantities during the bacterial decomposition; It causes a sharp facial flushing, nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain and skin rash. The symptoms appear within minutes after eating and lasts for several hours. In the summer months, the mussels, clams and oysters can contain a toxic substance - thermostable neurotoxin. Poisoning appears paresthesia (numbness, tingling and pins and needles), occurring a few minutes after eating these molluscs. Then there are nausea, vomiting and cramping abdominal pain, muscle weakness, flaccid paralysis ending. Paralysis - a lack of movement in the muscle or muscle group. Death may occur due to respiratory arrest.



    Radiation (radiation) lesions of the intestine

    Radiation (radiation) lesions of the intestine due to the action on the organism of ionizing radiation.

    The cells were small and large intestines in particularsusceptible to acute radiation injury. Acute damage to the mucous membrane does not always cause clinical symptoms, and after the completion of radiation therapy may result in its complete restoration. The colon and rectum inflammation and changes in the mucosa, as a rule, lead to the development of acute colitis (inflammation of the large intestine) and proctitis (inflammation of the mucous membrane of the rectum). The manifestation of these diseases are very similar to those in ulcerative colitis (chronic inflammation of the colon ulcer development and bleeding gnoeobrazovaniem). Moreover, anti-hormone treatment steps (corticosteroids), sulfasalazine and exerts a good effect, particularly when used in the form of enemas.

    More massive exposure causes inflammationthe mucous membranes of the small intestine (enteritis) and colitis (inflammation of the large intestine) after weeks or even years after radiation therapy was completed.



    The manifestation of intestinal radiation damage

    Radiation bowel lesion develops most oftenof all patients with cancer receiving radiation therapy for pelvic tumors or lymph nodes. A more sensitive to ionizing radiation, the mucous membrane of the small intestine (radiation enteritis), mucous membrane of the colon is less sensitive. The damaging effect is characterized by inflammation. For more radiation enteritis characterized by the development of malabsorption syndrome. Malabsorption syndrome manifested by weight loss in a high-grade food, dryness and peeling of the skin, changing its color: a kind of a dirty gray color, dark spots on the face and neck, darkening of the skin of the face, neck, hands, legs and feet. In the corners of the mouth, moist cracks may appear behind the ears or the nose wings. The nails become dull, stratified. Hair loss, thinning, whipped at the ends. It changes the language. It can be a loose, pale, puffy, with imprints of teeth on the edges. In other cases, it becomes purple-red. Sometimes the language becomes quite smooth, as if polished. There may be increased bleeding gums, bruising or pinpoint. There are swelling in the legs and feet.

    Severe radiation damage of the intestine may beonly in acute radiation sickness caused by external radiation or powerful or massive internal exposure in the gastrointestinal tract. In these cases develop severe diarrhea.

    Diagnosis of intestinal radiation injury is based on the detection of the fact of radiation exposure. Instrumental methods can detect changes in the intestinal mucosa.

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