Methods of studying the immune status with immunodeficiencies
The study of immune status with immunodeficienciesIt is to examine the number and functional activity of the major components of the immune system, playing a major role in protecting the body from infections. Such factors include phagocytic system, the complement system, T- and B-cell population. The methods used to assess the functioning of these systems, tests are conditionally divided into the 1st and 2nd levels. Tests Level 1 are indicative and aim at identifying the gross defects in the immune system, while the tests Layer 2 functionality and are designed to identify specific "failure" in the immune system.
Tests for evaluation of phagocytosis
It tests level 1 include methods aimedon the identification of the relevant product functioning of the immune system, which determines its antimicrobial effect. Tests Level 2 are optional, they are significantly enrich the information on the functioning of the immune system.
To test a Level 1 assessment phagocytosis definition applies:
- the absolute number of neutrophils and monocytes - Blood cells
- the intensity of the absorption of germs neutrophils and monocytes
- the ability of phagocytes to kill germs
To test level 2 assessment of phagocytosis include determining:
- the intensity of the chemotaxis of phagocytes
- adhesion molecule expression on the surface membrane of neutrophils
Tests to determine the level of activity of humoral immunity
To test a Level 1 evaluation B-cell population can be attributed definition:
- immunoglobulins G, A, M in serum
- immunoglobulin E in serum
- determining percentage and absolute number of B-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood
Determining the level of immunoglobulins - thisIt is still an important and reliable method for estimating the B-cell population. It can be considered the main method of diagnosis of all forms of immunodeficiency associated with the biosynthesis of antibodies.
To test level 2 assessment of B-cell population can be attributed definition:
- immunoglobulin, especially immunoglobulin class G
- secretory immunoglobulin class
- specific antibody to the protein and polysaccharide antigens of microbial cells
Determination of immunoglobulin G representscertain diagnostic value, since normal levels of immunoglobulin G may be deficits immunoglobulin subclasses. Such people, in some cases there are immune deficiencies, manifested in increased excitability to the infection.
For important information about the state of humoraldefines antibody immunity to bacterial protein and polysaccharide antigens, since the degree of protection of the body from a specific infection is not dependent on the overall level of immunoglobulins and the amount of antibodies to the pathogen.
Valuable information on the state of humoralimmunity can be obtained not only in determining the level of antibodies or immunoglobulins to specific antigens, but also by studying their functional properties. These first antibodies should include a property as the affinity, which is largely dependent on the strength of interaction of antibodies with the antigen. Production of low-affinity antibodies can lead to the development of immunodeficiency.