Hemorrhagic fevers caused by virusesEbola and Marburg, have much in common as they are pathogens filoviruses and only minor antigenic differences exist between them. The disease caused by these viruses, is highly contagious, severe and almost 100 percent mortality, therefore refers to the especially dangerous infections.
The first outbreak of the disease was registered inGerman city of Marburg in 1967. In the future, similar cases were observed in Zaire (about the Ebola River, also gave one of the names of infection), as well as in South Africa, the Sudan, Kenya, Côte d'Ivoire.
What causes fever
Activators of these fevers areRNA-containing filoviruses significantly different from all known viruses on the ultrastructure and antigenic composition. In the blood of viral particles can be detected up to 12 weeks after implementation. It is characteristic of the pathogen spread throughout the body through the bloodstream.
The source and the reservoir of virus infection innature during all the reported outbreaks were African green monkeys (Cercopitacus aethiops). Participation of other animals in natural foci has not been studied. Infection occurs through contact with infected primate (while hunting, when cutting carcasses).
A sick person is a danger to others - virus isolation takes place with the nasal mucus, urine. Infectious and blood, which is especially important for health care providers.
These viruses are considered asBW, moreover, on their basis can create other, more powerful agents that can be used including for bioterrorism purposes.
The incubation period (time from entering the pathogen into the body until the first symptoms of the disease) ranges from 2 to 16 days.
As manifested fever
The manifestation of fever caused by Marburg virusand Ebola does not differ among themselves. Disease begins acutely, with a rapid rise in body temperature to 39-40 ° C, often with chills. From the first days of developing symptoms of intoxication: headache, fatigue, weakness, muscle and joint pain.
A few days later joined defeatgastrointestinal tract in the form of diarrhea, hemorrhagic syndrome bleeding various localization and intensity. Gradually develops dehydration, can be broken out.
Half of the patients in the first week of the disease appears morbilliform rash, exciting face, palms and soles. Occasionally there is itching.
In severe cases, death can occur duringfrom the 4th to the 27th day (most often on the 10th). the recovery period is very long, while maintaining asthenia, headache and muscle pain, discomfort in the throat, possibly hair loss.
How to recognize the disease
Diagnosis is difficult. It is necessary to take into account several factors: the way of infection - if a person is in a place where you can catch a fever, provleniya disease (characteristic features of fever) and laboratory data (detection of the pathogen in the blood). Conducted special investigations to detect the virus directly - only after a definitive diagnosis can be set.
Treatment of cases
Treatment of patients is carried out in specialpremises in strict compliance with all safety precautions, isolation of patients and carrying out preventive measures among the contact persons. The therapy is to maintain vital functions, as well as the elimination of symptoms - mostly struggle with intoxication (headache, weakness, nausea, pain in joints and muscles.), Fever, dehydration and hemorrhagic syndrome (hemorrhages and bleeding).