Your child's nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, runny nose,coughing, intoxication and fever higher than 37.5? In this case, we can assume that he was infected with rotavirus. What to do? Running a hospital or treated at home? How to protect yourself from illness and other family members? We talk to the assistant professor of preventive pediatrics, infectious diseases and clinical immunology Medical Academy Sofia Tschaschina Evgenievna.
Drink boiled water and watch out for cold snaps
- Please tell us how many there are of viral diarrhea, and what a rotavirus infection?
- Viral diarrhea a lot. Today - about 120 varieties of viruses can cause diarrhea in children, high fever, vomiting, and catarrhal (runny nose, nasal congestion, sore throat and other cold symptoms.) Symptoms. This astroviruses and caliciviruses and enteroviruses and adenoviruses: Generally 75% of all diarrhea - a viral diarrhea. Rotavirus infection is characterized by lesions of the digestive tract - repeated vomiting and profuse watery stools, malaise, dehydration.
Infection with rotavirus
- How do you get rotavirus?
- The main ways - nutritional andcontact-household. The first way - the contamination of infected water or food, and the second - through care items: nipples, pacifiers, bottles, toys, dirty hands of adults, dirty maternity gown (which the child can "lick"). Very often, infection occurs through nekipyachёnuyu water.
- At what time of the year mainly arise viral diarrhea?
- In general, they arise in the cold season- A disease of the winter period. Reducing morbidity occurs with warming. If spring is early, rapid, and then instantly rotavirus infection is declining. But if it is prolonged, on the freezing night long with snow, the higher the incidence. Thus, the rise of infection usually begins in the month of November and recession - April.
- But in the spring of worsening water quality
- Yes, indeed, it is getting worse. But in the spring of rotavirus are not as active at this time, as a rule, starts upsurge other infections - bacterial (ehsherihioza). The spring water, these pathogens is becoming very much and it is through them comes the growth of intestinal infection, which also takes quite seriously.
Manifestation of disease
- What are the symptoms of rotavirus infection?
- The disease usually starts withcatarrhal symptoms (runny nose, cough, sore throat). At the same time opens repeated vomiting, and then profuse watery stools. The temperature is usually higher than 37.5, and often rises to 39 degrees. And for adults is characteristic temperature is below 40, uncontrollable vomiting, but diarrhea is absent.
- What can cause these symptoms?
- Since young children opensvomiting and watery stools, which may lead to dehydration. An adult can cope with it, because he felt thirsty and drink a lot, so quickly coming out of this state. But the small child dehydration is very dangerous!
Dehydration in infants leads toviolation of water-salt metabolism, therefore, likely to develop kidney failure, and it can be fatal. Therefore, if a child has repeated vomiting several times more than the chair 6-7 times a day, and he rarely urinate (not urinate within 6 hours), that require immediate hospitalization.
- Is it true that the disease is very rapid, and starts suddenly and sharply?
- Yes this is true. Very fast care toxicosis with dehydration, in just a few hours. At the same time, if adequate treatment is carried out, the child throughout the day may exit the heavy condition.
- What is the latency period of the disease?
- And from two hours to seven days.
- And in what period the patient is contagious?
- Since the advent of catarrhal symptoms,vomiting and diarrhea. That is, until there is no discharge, the child is not contagious. But once begun any allocation, it becomes dangerous to others. Once recovery has come, he ceases to be contagious.
Who suffers rotavirus
- Rotavirus infections people get sick, usually singly, or infected everyone around?
- This gives a focal infection incidence inlimited collectives, such as kindergartens or nurseries, children's homes: Very often, this infection gives the incidence in the family, that is, there are family hearths.
- Who gets ahead - adults or children?
- First, as a rule, sick children, and alreadyafter the children - adults. Moreover, these diseases are more prone to young children. The most susceptible age - children from 6 months to 5 years, although older children may also get sick.
Up to 6 months, children often suffer notrotavirus, and mixed infection. For example, a rotavirus infection plus klebsiellёznaya or staphylococcus. That is, a combination of viral infection with opportunistic. Mixed infections have a certain clinical picture, which is a little different from rotavirus infection. The chair is not just watery, but with a dash of green slime, and, in small portions, 2 to 10 times a day, repeated vomiting, disturbed pain in the abdomen, especially during feedings or at night.
- Why is rotavirus infection are more prone to it children?
- Because kids have their physiologicalfeatures. The fact that infants gastric acidity differs from adult human gastric acidity. gastric barrier does not protect the child. In children, the immune system has not yet matured to such a degree as an adult. Particularly lacking secretory immunoglobulin that lines the oral mucosa and the mucosa of the entire digestive tract. Due to the shortage of such antibodies, childhood longer susceptible to the disease.
- That is, adults rarely get sick?
- Yes, but still sick. Patients with chronic diseases of the digestive tract are susceptible to viral diarrhea. This is especially true for people with gastritis, accompanied by low acidity. Healthy adults are the most likely carriers of rotavirus, thus becoming a source of infection.
- Survey with rotavirus infection
- Use one of the most informativemethod - is the so-called ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) to determine the antigen. With this method, the diagnosis is very fast, within a few hours. Material for research (stool) is sent to the central laboratory.
"Excessive drinking" + smectite
- How to be treated with rotavirus infection?
- It is necessary as soon as possible after the firstsymptoms, consult a doctor. Treatment consists of fluids and reception smekty, basic therapy prescribed by the physician. In no case can not be in the first days of the disease to take enzymes! The fact that the composition includes any protease enzyme which promote the introduction of rotavirus in intestinal mucosal epithelium.
- "Excessive drinking" - this is how much?
- To effect was, need to drink every 20 minutesabout a tablespoon of liquid, with a liquid it is necessary to alternate (eg, teaspoon salt, teaspoon of boiled water or tea, fruit drinks, rice water). As a rule, within 6 hours of application solutions and smectic leads to a significant improvement. The amount required is calculated drink physician depending on the age of the child and the amount of fluid loss, for example, a child with a weight of 8 kg need not less than 800 ml.
- What do you mean by the words "salt solution"?
- Regidron, glyukosalan. But in such a solution, as the tour includes not only salt, but the chamomile extract, chamomile and very well disinfects the intestine!
- What can not be used with rotavirus infection?
- When rotavirus gastroenteritis patientsabsolutely can not tolerate milk. Cow's milk should be excluded from the diet. And children who are breastfed, reduce the proportion of its use. This is due to the fact that drastically decreases the synthesis of an enzyme that cleaves milk sugar in the small intestine. A milk sugar accumulation in the intestine, just causes diarrhea.
- What is the best to use in this period?
- If it is young children, they remainalmost natural feeding ie breast milk. And when artificial feeding - adapted milk formula. From the best-adapted formulas fit or Low-dairy mixture. Children from 8 months it is possible to use children's yogurt. After a year are dairy-free cereal, yogurt, later adapted mix (especially for the children after a year). You can use vegetable puree (without the addition of milk), cheese, broth, beef, dairy-free porridge to add butter. Children older than three years, given the sour juice (cranberry, currant, cranberry).
- And yet, it is better to hospitalize the child, or can be treated at home?
- Light and erased forms can be treated at homesupervision of the district pediatrician. When srednetyazhёlyh forms infants should not be left at home. If the child is older than one year, and it is weakened (often ill), it is also better to be hospitalized. Well, and, of course, in severe forms of child hospitalization is required! Older children are left at home, as long as strict compliance with the prescribed treatment and the rules of sanitary hygiene.
After an illness
- What are the recommendations after the transfer of rotavirus infection?
- Often as a result of suffering a rotavirus gastroenteritis formed intestinal dysbiosis. Therefore, after the illness within a month need to take biologics.
- Does the prevention of rotavirus infection?
- In winter, it is desirable to constantlyuse boiled water, not only for drinking but even for washing dishes. Perfectly rotaviruses destroyed soap, the usual dressing, any washing powder. When these basic hygiene rules spread of rotavirus occurs.
In winter, for the prevention of rotavirusinfections, babies better bathe in boiled water. And bottled water can be viruses, so it is also better to boil. Fruits, washed under the tap, preferably scalded with boiling water! The adult members of the family should not forget to wash your hands after using the toilet, cleaning the apartment, with the arrival of the street, before preparing food. After all, in fact, any intestinal infection - a disease of dirty hands!
- When the disease in humans is formed by the immune system?
- Unfortunately, the immune system produces noresistant, so a child may have had this infection repeatedly. Now in the world there is a testing of the vaccine against rotavirus. The fact that there are abroad vaccine that work successfully. For example, in America, in France, vaccination against rotavirus is included in the national calendar. Here in our country, such a vaccine is developed, at the moment it is checked. If testing goes well, perhaps soon all the children in the three-monthly age will instill. And then, I think we will cope with this infection.