Leptospirosis, ways of leptospirosis infection
Leptospirosis (Weil's disease-Vasileva, infectious jaundice, nanukayami, Japanese
7-day fever, fever, water, meadow mowing, fever, dog fever)
- An acute infectious disease characterized by fever, general intoxication,
renal disease, liver and nervous system.
Activators are leptospirosis spirochete Leptospira family. known
About 200 types of Leptospira, causing disease. They are adapted to life
in water, a long time is stored in damp soil.
The source of infection are animals (wood mouse, vole, water rats,
shrews, rats, dogs, pigs, cattle and others.), which carry
disease without any symptoms and for a long time isolated from the urine leptospira.
Human infection occurs through contact of damaged skin, mucous membranes
water contaminated animal secretions, or use of contaminated water
secretions of animal products.
A sick person a danger to others not represented.
In humans Leptospira penetrate the slightest violation of the integrity of
skin, mucous membrane of the mouth, nose, eyes, gastro-intestinal tract.
Once in the blood, leptospira spread in various tissues and organs. there occurs
their reproduction and loss of muscles, especially calf, kidney with a violation of urine formation,
liver, red blood cells (red blood cells), and the nervous system.
After this illness develops lasting immunity, but
Leptospira only to this type. Perhaps re-infection with another type of Leptospira.
For leptospirosis characterized by seasonality with the peak incidence
The incubation period lasts from 4 to 14 days.
The disease begins suddenly, among full health without any precursors.
There is a fever, the body temperature rises rapidly to 39-40 C,
concerned about a severe headache, insomnia, lack of appetite, thirst. Highly
a characteristic feature is a lot of pain in the muscles (myalgia), especially in the calf.
The process may involve the muscles of the hip and lumbar region, their feeling
very painful. In some patients, myalgia accompanied by severe burning pain
skin. Muscle pain is so severe that patients with difficulty walking or
They can not move at all (in severe forms). The face of the patient hyperemic
(Red), puffy, hyperemia and skin of the neck and upper thoracic
cells ( "symptom hood"). It reduces the amount of urine. In severe
yellowness of the disease appears 3-5 days of illness, petechial hemorrhages in the sclera
eyes and skin.
Subsequently acute renal failure develops - the main reason
death of patients.
Meningitis (inflammation of the meninges), encephalitis (inflammation of the
brain), polyneuritis, myocarditis (heart muscle inflammation), iritis
(Iritis). When you join a bacterial infection
there are: pneumonia (lung inflammation), otitis, pielity, mumps.
Diagnosis is sometimes difficult, especially in mild forms, as
often wrongly diagnosed with "flu" or "ARI". Laboratory diagnosis is confirmed
detecting the pathogen in blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid.
The main method of treatment - early (up to 4 days from the onset of the disease)
antibiotics are the most effective penicillins (benzylpenicillin
sodium, oxacillin sodium, ospamoks) when intolerances
You can use the antibiotics tetracycline group (tetracycline hydrochloride,
vibramitsin). The later of the beginning of the development of disease specific treatment started,
the worse the prognosis for patients.
Use the introduction of donor-specific immunoglobulin; apply
and a complex of vitamins, be sure to include ascorbic acid and vitamin
In severe cases, acute renal failure, use of mannitol
or Lasix. In the absence of effect of conservative treatment of hemodialysis
(Blood purification using the "artificial kidney" apparatus).
Protecting water sources from contamination, disinfection
water, prohibition of swimming in open waters stagnant, strict control over
the ongoing work on the construction of wells and water supply systems, insulation
sick animals, the use of food only boiled milk.
When working on wetlands, use rubber boots.
You can not use water from open reservoirs. Food must be protected