Typical childhood traumas
Young children often fall while movinggames, but they are seldom broken bones. A small body weight and well-developed soft tissue cover weaken the force of impact when dropped. Prevent fractures and structural features of the bones and joints in children. Child bone mineral substances contain less than in the adult, thus have flexibility and elasticity. Around the bones, the clutch, the periosteum is, in children it is thick and flexible, well supplied with blood. At the turn of the bone periosteum often completely broken and prevents displacement of large fragments. The bones of the limbs and spine in children are the sprout layer of cartilage. It is called so because the bones are growing at the expense of the cartilage. Cartilage is flexible, it also prevents fractures.
Sprain. In children, the first 3 years of life such injuryrare. The most typical ankle sprains. They occur when an awkward movement when the foot are folded inside. At this point, the baby feels a sharp pain, which gradually subsides. However, after some time on the outer surface of the ankle swelling appears, sometimes cyanotic, painful not touch. Movement in the joint even though possible, but limited. Child spare leg and had difficulty stepping on it.
For first aid at the place of stretchingligaments impose locking 8-shaped bandage and ice pack for 2-3 hours. However, for children in this age group is not more common sprains and fractures on the fracture type one of the leg bones in the lower third. Diagnosed crack only under X-ray examination. Therefore, after the first aid of the child need to show the doctor-traumatologist.
Dislocations. In case of accident can be broken off articularbag, and then one of the bones of the slip joint cavity. Joint capsule and ligaments in children are very resilient, but because dislocations at an early age are quite rare. Recognize dislocation you can on such grounds: the usual broken joint contours, movements in it are sharply limited, increases the pain in the joint, the limb is shortened or lengthened.
When dislocation or suspected, it is necessary to createfor an injured arm or leg the maximum rest, splint or bandage fixing and how to deliver the child to the surgeon as soon as possible. When procrastination due to rapidly increasing edema is difficult to straighten the bone in the joint. In addition, between the bones may impair nerve or vessel, and this will lead to serious consequences (paralysis or limb necrosis). Layman does not reduce a dislocation, as in some cases it can be difficult to distinguish from a dislocated fracture and first aid can be more harm than good to the child.
Subluxation of radial bone in the elbow joint. This injury occurs only at the age of 2-3 yearsand it is also called "pulling of dislocation." By trauma usually results in a movement in which the child's hand, which is in a stretched position, podver-Gaeta sharp stretching along the longitudinal axis of the hand more often up front sometimes. The child may stumble or slip, and the adult who leads him, holding his hand, pulls her to keep the baby from falling. Sometimes a young child is stretching occurs during the game (adult, taking him by the hand, moving around), or putting on a narrow sleeve. In some cases, an adult can hear the hand snapped.
Whatever the cause of the damage,the child cries out in pain, then stop immediately move his arm, holding her in a forced position, stretched out along the trunk and slightly bent at the elbow. Especially painful rotational movement of the forearm at the elbow joint. This damage is due to the fact that such small children ligament retaining radial bone, yet weak. By 4-5 years it is growing, and such complications no longer occur.
Reduction of subluxation in most casesIt made easy. Forearm carefully transferred to a position of bending at a right angle at the elbow, grab a brush arm of the same name of the patient and make the rotational movement of the forearm. The child is experiencing some pain and reduce a clicking feeling or a light crunch. There is a reduction. The child immediately calms down and literally a 1-2 minute hand to move freely and begin to use it as well. To impose a bandage fixing is not necessary. But we must be careful not to drive for a sick child's hand. While walking with toddlers is better to use the "reins".
Traumatic dislocations of major joints (Hip, knee, shoulder) in children 3 years of life almost never occur.