Acute renal failure is a sudden termination or sharp decrease in the function of both kidneys or a single kidney. At the same time, all the functions of the kidneys are disturbed, first of all, filtering, then excretory and secretory.
Causes of acute renal failure
The causes of the occurrence of renal failure are divided into three large groups. Causes from the whole body: diseases and injuries leading to long bleeding, resulting in sharply lowering the pressure in the kidney aircraft and their work ceases. Heavy injuries, burns of a large body surface, electric shock, sepsis, allergic shock can lead to acute renal failure. The lack of blood supply to the kidneys leads first simply to a decrease in the work of the kidney tissue cells, and then to their death. To the same result can result in a large water loss with an indomitable vote, the uncontrolled use of diuretic drugs, with diseases of the intestine, accompanied by a long diarrhea. If the lack of water is not replenished in time, irreversible necrotic changes occur in the kidneys.
Various diseases of the renal fabric: acute glomerulonephritis, rheumatic kidney lesions, malignant arterial hypertension, blood disease.
Toxic impact on the kidneys of various substances - salts of mercury, cadmium, copper, acetic acid, poisonous mushrooms, fertilizers.
The kidney strike can cause the uncontrolled use of some drugs - preparations from a group of sulfanimamides, some antibiotics, antitumor drugs. Toxic substances affect kidney tissue cells and these cells die. The kidney function is stopped.
Stop reasons. These are causes from the lower urinary tract. Acute renal failure can be caused by the sharp blockage of the urinary tract of both or the only kidney by stone, blood clot or the compression of the urinary tract during injury or tumor process, during the comprehensive ureterals during the abdominal operations. Urine accumulation in a cup-making kidney system causes pressure increase in it . With a long existence of increased pressure, swelling occurs, and then necrosis (death) of the renal tissue. Usually such renal failure arises slower and possibly its reverse development with timely recovery of urine outflow.
Under the acute renal failure of the kidney lose the ability to maintain the balance of the electrolyte composition of the blood, the number of potassium ions, calcium, chlorine, is increasing, the products of protein exchange products - MEEW, Creatine. Because of the violation of the secretory function of the kidneys, anemia arises (reducing the number of red blood cells), reduces the number of platelets responsible for blood coagulation. One of the first manifestations of acute renal failure is Oliguria (reducing the number of urine) or Anuria (lack of urine). The patient's condition deteriorates, it is accompanied by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, lack of appetite, edema extremities occur, increases in the volume of liver. The patient can be inhibited or the opposite comes.
Stages of acute renal failure
During acute renal failure, four stages are distinguished:
- Initial. In this stage, usually the patient's condition depends on the main reason that caused renal failure
- Oliganuric. In this stage, urination is missing or the amount of urine does not exceed 500 ml per day. This is the most dangerous stage, and if it lasts a long patient can go to whom. In this stage, the greatest number of patients die
- Diuretic stage. In this step, the amount of urine gradually increases and reaches a volume of up to 5 liters per day. Water and electrolyte composition is restored in the blood. Stage lasts about two weeks
- Stage of recovery. In this stage, the kidney function is gradually restored. For this, sometimes it takes up to one year
The forecast for acute renal failure depends in many respects from the underlying disease. For the complete restoration of the kidney work after transferred acute renal failure, the patient is required from six months to two years.