Trichinosis

Content

  • Sources of infection
  • Ways of infection with trichinosis
  • The forms of existence
  • Symptoms of the disease
  • The effects of parasitism
  • Methods of diagnosis
  • Treatment of trichinosis
  • Prevention of trichinosis
  • Remember


  • This disease
    It occurs in all countries, especially where the population uses in
    eating pig, badger and bear meat. Trichinella adapted to very
    a wide range of hosts: parasitize 70 species of mammals. More
    addition, the scientists documented Trichinella new beskapsulnogo species, and
    and the inclusion of the parasite life cycle in different species of birds. In Russia
    there is a trend more frequent infestation of pigs. its
    viability under favorable conditions for them are trichina
    save up to 20 years or more.


    Sources of infection

    Trichinosis
    attributed to natural focal diseases as the main carriers
    and sources are wild animals (bears, badgers, wild boar). Also
    a significant role in the spread of the disease play and insects that
    animals ingested with plant food. Pigs
    trihenillezom infected by eating raw garbage and debris, and
    and from rats.


    Ways of infection with trichinosis

    Infection
    Human occurs when consuming raw or transmitted
    insufficient heat treatment of meat of wild animals and pigs which
    contains larvae of the helminth (kebabs, smoked meats, sausages,
    syrokopchennyaya and cooked sausage). Pure animal fat does not contain
    Trichinella larvae, whereas smoked and salted lard with meat
    veins is extremely dangerous to use. From one person to another
    trichinosis not transmitted.


    The forms of existence


    Development of Trichinella in humans and animals there is the same type and include intestinal, migration and muscle phases:

    • Intestinal phase. Infection occurs by eating meat containing
      encapsulated Trichinella larvae. In the process of digestion in the stomach and
      duodenum capsules disintegrate, which takes roughly 1
      hour. Young Trichinella, while in the lumen of the duodenum,
      ripen for 3-4 days, after which the females begin to lay
      larvae. This process takes 10 to 45 days, and after
      females die shortly. The term of the intestinal stage - 42-56 days. Female
      lays up to 2,100 larvae;
    • The migration phase. Larvae on the lymphatic system fall into the current
      blood and are carried throughout the body. their migration begins about
      6 days after infection;
    • Muscle phase. Subsidence larvae occurs in striated
      muscles. The first, as yet few larvae appear there already
      6-7 day. They are distributed unevenly, preferring to mimic,
      breathing, chewing muscles, the diaphragm, the flexors of the extremities.
      Settling in the muscles, the larvae increase in size about 10 times,
      wove into a spiral and a 17-18 day become capable of infecting
      next host. By 3-4 weeks capsules are formed around the larvae,
      the wall of which is covered with lime a year. In this form, the larva
      It remains viable up to 25 years. Those larvae that have not been put in
      muscles, die quickly. In humans, no further helminths
      developed. they need to get there in order to continue the life cycle
      rat or pig intestines. The organism of these animals takes place
      the main period of Trichinella.



    Symptoms of the disease

    weight
    trichinosis disease depends on the number of larvae caught in
    body. A lethal dose for humans - 5 larvae per 1 kg
    patient. Symptoms of the disease depends on the stage of development of Trichinella
    in humans.


    There are 3 stages of development trihinilleza:

    • Stage 1 (invasion): develops within a week after infection, when
      mature worms actively proliferate. There is a loss
      appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain and cramps;
    • Stage 2 (desseminatsiya) occurs within 10 days after infection,
      when Trichinella penetrate through the mucosa of the small intestine and
      migrate to the striated muscles. This stage is characterized edema
      persons (especially age), muscle pain (especially in the hands and feet)
      skin rash, itching, burning, raising the temperature to 38-40 C.
      severe cases, affects the respiratory, cardiovascular,
      central nervous system;
    • Stage 3 (encapsulation) is coming in the recovery period,
      usually one week after the second stage. But in the human muscle capsule
      leave large erosion. Trichinella larvae are carried through the bloodstream by
      throughout the body and stop in skeletal muscle in certain
      muscle groups. Most often the larvae affect the diaphragm, chewy,
      intercostal and deltoids, rare - the muscles of the eye.



    The effects of parasitism

    Trichinosis
    It gives complication on the respiratory tract, and central nervous
    cardiovascular system. In very severe develop
    immunopathological reactions leading to diffuse patchy
    myocarditis, pneumonia, meningoencephalitis. In rare cases, this
    the disease is fatal.



    Methods of diagnosis

    Trichinosis
    If
    trichinosis is suspected, it is important to remember that sick
    have eaten recently (pork or products thereof do not
    past sufficient heat treatment), and if possible,
    explore the meat, which used the patient. It is necessary to differentiate
    trichinosis from tifo- and paratyphoid infections, acute respiratory infections, measles, rubella,
    acute stage of other helminth infections.

    A major role in the diagnosis of laboratory tests play. On
    stage of infection can be detected in the faeces of adult Trichinella and
    larvae. A good method is considered to be a biopsy of muscular tissue
    immunological reactions, particularly skin-allergic test. great
    Methods importance immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect
    specific for Trichinella antibodies produced by the immune system
    infected. Class M immunoglobulins appear in 14-15 days
    after infection, their concentration reaches a maximum at 4-12 week.
    Persons suspected of trichinosis with a low positive or
    a negative result is recommended to repeat the study by IFA
    10-14 days. Do people ill with trichinosis specific antibodies
    can be stored up to 2 years or more.



    Treatment of trichinosis


    specific
    treatment is carried out mintezolom (thiabendazole). Vermoxum
    (Mebendazole), albendazole, which have a devastating effect
    on intestinal Trichinella larvae and developing emerging from the capsules,
    fertilized embryos in the uterus of females, therefore the greatest effect
    observed in the first two weeks after infection. At the same time appoint
    antihistamines. Corticosteroids are indicated in the developing
    myocarditis, pneumonitis (large dose, but short courses). But when light
    during their illness is not indicated, since they enhance
    reproductive activity of female parasites and slow process
    encapsulation. Sometimes intense infestations and inadequate treatment
    anthelmintic drugs after 1-2 weeks after the acute
    manifestations of relapse associated with the resumption of
    female reproductive activity remaining in the intestine. at
    establishing the fact of re-infection are treated with Vermoxum.
    Write out patients after recovery of motor skills,
    normalization of the ECG and functions of internal organs, under the supervision of
    infectious disease with a recommendation limitation of physical activity (after
    heavy trichinosis) as muscle pain may persist
    for 2-6 months.



    Prevention of trichinosis

    For
    prevention of infection with trichinosis should be prepared properly
    pork, wild boar, badger, nutria, bears, others
    omnivores and carnivores. Keep raw meat and pork products
    It should be frozen. To Trichinella died temperature
    inside the meat during cooking should not be less than 65 ° C, the color
    should change from pink to gray. Fighting trichinosis
    is the destruction of rats living in a pigsty, checking
    arriving to sell meat. Do not buy meat without
    stamp on the carcasses and ham.


    Remember

    larvae
    Trichinella easily withstand prolonged cooling, warming, and salting
    smoking meat. Cooking can destroy them for not less than two and a
    a half hours at a thickness of no more than pieces of 8 cm. Cooking barbecue
    necessary using vinegar, which kills the larvae of Trichinella.
    Trichinella in meat is very resistant to external influences, more than
    bovine or porcine cysticercus. At ordinary temperatures frozen meat
    (-10 C) larvae «Trichinella spiralis» survive for a long time, at -12 C to 57
    days at -18 C and 21 hours. Larvae «Trichinella nativa» stand
    Freezing to -23 C for 3 days at -16 C and they maintain
    infective for 20 months. At temperatures above 50 C larvae
    survive for a few minutes, but we must remember that when
    meat dishes such temperature is reached in depth piece
    not always. When salting the larvae can remain in the depth of the piece
    up to 1 year.

    Courses
    treatment of parasitic medications have severe side
    effects of intoxication syndrome, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain,
    allergic reactions, the composition of blood, neurological
    disorders.

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