Acute bronhiolit- is one of the most severerespiratory diseases in young children. The most common cause of acute bronchiolitis is a viral infection. In 60-85% of cases the disease is respiratory syncytial virus (PC-virus), parainfluenza virus less (mostly 3 types), cytomegalovirus, adenovirus, Mycoplasma, Chlamydia. There are cases of bronchiolitis after measles, chicken pox, whooping cough.
Among the environmental factors that mayserve as predisposing to the development of bronchiolitis, particular importance is attached to passive smoking in the home. Under the influence of tobacco smoke disturbed the process of cleansing the bronchial mucosa due to the work of the cilia, the mucus slows promotion. Passive smoking contributes to the destruction of the bronchial mucosa cells. Especially vulnerable in this respect are children of 1st year of life.
The earliest defeat at bronchiolitis -desquamation of the mucosal cells of the small bronchi and bronchioles and its replacement cells without cilia. Exfoliated cells form dense mucus plug in bronchi and bronchioles, resulting in partial or complete blockage of the airway, because of which the child becomes difficult to breathe. Gradually, the cells are recovered, and everything comes back to normal.
In most cases, the appearance of clinicalbronchiolitis preceded by SARS with the defeat of the nasopharynx and upper respiratory tract. In some cases, all of a sudden, others - gradually (2-4-th days of illness) condition worsens. The child becomes sluggish, it decreases appetite, appears at the beginning of an obsessive, dry, quickly rolling into a wet cough, shortness of breath with growing difficulty breathing, nasal flaring, strain the neck muscles.
One of the hallmarks of this diseasecyanosis of the skin is due to violation of oxygen supply to the tissues. Sometimes children become gray cast iron or even color. Often children hear crackles on inhaling height. May appear short periods of cessation of breathing, especially premature. Severe shortness of breath leads to dehydration. Body temperature may be normal or even low. The severity of the child's status is determined by the degree of respiratory disorders.
To diagnose bronchiolitis heldStudy of mucus from the nasal passages and throat, made blood and urine tests. Good help in the diagnosis rengenologicheskoe of the chest computed tomography, as well as tests for evaluating the quality of breathing.
Treatment of acute bronchiolitis includes aa number of measures aimed at combating the lack of oxygen. Obligatory method of therapy is the inhalation of oxygen (oxygen therapy) in an oxygen tent. To make up for the loss of water with frequent breathing child must constantly drink liquid rehydron better. In marked dehydration is carried out by intravenous drip infusion. To combat the virus infection shows the use of interferon or other similar drugs. If necessary, the input means, expand the bronchi (via inhaler).
When reduced to the prevention of bronchiolitishardening, balanced diet (at children who are breast-fed, bronchiolitis occur significantly less frequently than in children, early transferred to artificial feeding), the prevention of contact with sick SARS, early treatment of SARS.
The child, who suffered bronchiolitis, preventive vaccination shall be held not earlier than one month after recovery.