Osteoarthritis - a disease of the joints, very wellwidespread in the world. A more correct name of osteoarthritis - Osteoarthritis. Primary osteoarthritis occurs on previously healthy joint, and its cause - damage to the joint, such as hard physical work. In secondary arthrosis (synovitis) joint affected by arthrosis, was deformed even before the disease - such as resulting from trauma.
Metabolic disorder in the joint leads toloss of cartilage elasticity. To the greatest extent it contributes to the partial or complete loss of proteoglycans from cartilage (is due to deep cracks in the cartilage). There is another reason for the disappearance of proteoglycans - a violation of their production of the joint cartilage cells.
The most common are osteoarthritis diseasejoints of the lower half of the body (hip, knee, first metatarsophalangeal). In the hands of the disease osteoarthritis often exposed joints phalanges. Osteoarthritis usually occurs first on one joint, and then at the second - the first symmetric.
Osteoarthritis of 1 degree is the first stage of the disease. Also divided into 2 arthrosis and 3 degrees.
Causes of arthritis
Physical hard work contributes to the appearancearthrosis. disease arthrosis time is approaching when repetitive movements while working. For example, one of the "professional" players diseases - osteoarthritis of the knee. Fat people are also more prone to arthrosis.
Osteoarthritis develops when the twoadjoining surfaces of joints dock bad - because the pressure on the cartilage in this case turns out to be uneven. Osteoarthritis of this type develops most often in people with scoliosis or flat feet. Causes of osteoarthritis:
- joint injury
- joint inflammation
- metabolic disorders and thyroid
The main symptoms of the disease
The most basic symptom of osteoarthritis is in a crunchjoints and not very strong pain after physical activity. Pain in osteoarthritis occur when heavy physical work, trauma, infections, so-called «Starting pains." Such pain occur at the beginning, for example, working hours, and then removed. But with an increase in the load on the joint is renewed. There are persistent pain in osteoarthritis, which will be shown at each joint position change. The cause of such pain in osteoarthritis - sprain while driving.
If the joint is having problems with blood circulation, it can be continuous nocturnal pain that will disappear when moving.
If you experience pain in the knees - this is one ofsymptoms of osteoarthritis of the hip joint. This discrepancy places of painful osteoarthritis source sensation is due to the transmission of pain along the nerve fibers. Knee arthrosis treatment may differ from the other treatment joints.
Acute pain in unexpected situations - is a sign of the existence of "joint mouse" - quite a large fragment of the joint or bone. In may disappear, and the pain of the further movement of "mouse" - to stop.
If the arthrosis is in the advanced stage, its common symptoms are pain when walking or standing, and this pain is getting stronger in the evening.
Pain - is not the only symptomarthrosis. Namely, in its early stages there is little crunch when you change the position of the joint. Later this crunch coarsens, appears fatigue when driving, as well as the difficulties of joint motion in the transition from rest to motion (eg, upon awakening).
Osteoarthritis in its late stage often manifests itself in the limitation of mobility of the patient's joint, at the same time, a complete inability to change the joint position does not occur.
Methods of diagnosis of osteoarthritis
The first method of diagnosis of osteoarthritis -X-ray. There are three radiographic stage of osteoarthritis. At the first stage there is joint movement limitation to a small extent, while the third - a pronounced deformation of the affected joint arthrosis.
Another popular method of diagnosis of osteoarthritis - a blood test, in case of illness reactive synovitis ESR increases of up to 25 mm / h.
Also, there is another diagnostic methodarthrosis - the analysis of synovial fluid. Deviation from the norm - reactive synovitis provokes reduction in the number of neutrophils to the point that they become no more than 50%.
And finally, the last way to diagnose osteoarthritis- A histological examination of the synovium. When osteoarthritis proliferation of cover missing cells observed fibro-fatty degeneration. There are atrophic villi, the number of vessels - is reduced.
Physiotherapy treatment of osteoarthritis
This method of treatment of osteoarthritis - one ofbasic techniques in the treatment of osteoarthritis. He has a positive effect on cartilage metabolism, prevents or reduces the rate of destructive activities of osteoarthritis. It also has beneficial effects on the circulation of substances in bone, synovium, periarticular tissues. Besides all this, physiotherapy treatment prevents osteoarthritis pain and synovitis.
Microwave arthrosis therapy
The wavelength at different stages of osteoarthritisvirtually unchanged, it varies depending on the equipment available and the specific instructions of the doctor a few centimeters to a few decimeters. The latter waves are often used in the treatment of osteoarthritis, because of their penetration into the tissue affected by arthrosis deeper than centimeter waves, respectively, and UHF beneficial effect on the patient arthrosis higher than centimetric waves. Even if the arthrosis is accompanied by ischemic heart disease, microwave therapy does not cause side effects.
Ultrasonic treatment of osteoarthritis
This kind of treatment of osteoarthritis is only applicableWhere no synovitis, there is pain in the area affected by arthrosis and proliferative changes are present in the surrounding tissues. Contraindications for the ultrasonic treatment of osteoarthritis are atherosclerosis, menopause, fibroids, breast disease.
Electrophoresis in the treatment of osteoarthritis
Electrophoresis painkillers such asanalgin and procaine, provides for eliminating the pain arising from osteoarthritis. If applied to an electrophoresis sulfur, magnesium, zinc, this method may be called a full treatment of arthrosis, since these materials will accelerate the metabolism in the affected joints. It also involves electrophoresis Dimexidum - This procedure reduces pain in osteoarthritis of the patient and eliminates the inflammation of the joint. Electrophoresis is used mainly to elderly people with osteoarthritis, with a pronounced pain of osteoarthritis. However, a patient should not be a secondary synovitis.
The application of heat transfer in the treatment of osteoarthritis
This method of treatment of osteoarthritis is enoughpopular around the world. Heat carriers contribute to the increase in temperature in the affected arthritic joints and cartilage, expand capillaries, enhance hemodynamics, increased metabolism, tissue metabolism, degrade proliferative processes, stimulated by the natural recovery of cartilage, osteoarthritis patient. This method of treatment of osteoarthritis should not be used if the arthritis is already in the third stage, if there is synovitis, ischaemia, hypertension, varicose veins. The most common coolants are the peat and silt mud (from 38 to 400 degrees Celsius), mineral wax (from 50 to 550 degrees Celsius) or paraffin. To cure the diseased joint arthrosis is usually sufficient 10-15 procedures.
Local barotherapy in the treatment of osteoarthritis
When osteoarthritis local blood circulation is broken most often as osteoarthritis patients in the affected joint is reduced, an insufficient number of capillaries.
Local barotherapy creates in the region aroundthe patient's arthritic joints low blood pressure, which helps to improve the blood flow in this area, removes blood stasis, reveals undiscovered capillaries, etc. This type of treatment is used in osteoarthritis when various drug treatments of osteoarthritis is not helping. Indications are the same as in the previous treatment of osteoarthritis - a variety of diseases of the cardiovascular system, as well as the presence of synovitis.
Treatment of osteoarthritis hondroporotektorami
Chondroprotectors artroze- at this specialdrugs that enhance metabolism in the affected joint, and thus slow down or prevent its destruction. Most drugs for osteoarthritis such biologically active substances contained cartilage.
Introduction of proteolytic enzyme inhibitors in osteoarthritis
This method is used in distinctpain or in the presence of reactive synovitis. The most common inhibitors are administered for arthrosis of the knee joint. The most popular drugs for osteoarthritis of this type are trasilol (kontrkal) and gordoks. These drugs inhibit trypsin, chymotrypsin, proteases and other cathepsins. Trasylol or gordoks injected into the joint, the dosage - 25 000 units. The treatment of osteoarthritis - from 2 to 5 injections of these drugs on osteoarthritis, intervals between injections - 2-3 days. Before the introduction of the drug in the body is necessary to make intramuscular diphenhydramine, and the very cure for osteoarthritis should be mixed with 0.002 g gidrokortihona - it will remove the sharp pain from osteoarthritis.
The use of artificial joint lubricant
This method improves the treatment of osteoarthritismatching each other two joints, and reduces deformation and destruction of cartilage. As synthetic lubricants generally act polyvinylpyrrolidone or a 6% solution (gemodez).
These drugs for osteoarthritis are entered only in thelarge joints. Injections have done once a week dosage - 5 ml of a 15% solution of polyvinylpyrrolidone in a mixture of 25 ml of hydrocortisone - for pain of osteoarthritis. The course usually consists of 4-6 injections, although this number can be changed at the discretion of the physician. If the patient is small joint arthrosis, the amount administered polyvinylpyrrolidone reduced by half to two times. This type of treatment is effective in osteoarthritis any stage of reactive synovitis.
Metabolic therapy in the treatment of osteoarthritis
This kind of treatment of osteoarthritis is aimed at accelerating the process of metabolism in the affected joint.
There are two most important metabolic therapy for osteoarthritis of substance:
- Fosfaden. This drug is part of ATP, coenzyme, has a pronounced effect antiagregatnym
- Potassium Orotate, orotic acid - a substance that is based pyrimidine nucleotides, she and her salt produce anabolic effects on the affected joint arthrosis