White, yellow, green, black tartar- Just do not look like these dubious "decoration" on the teeth. In addition to compromising the aesthetics of the dentition harmless stone deposits play a special role in the development of caries and periodontal disease often lead to loss of teeth. What are the causes of tartar? How is it formed? And why some teeth remain white for life, while others look untidy? Try to understand.
The term "plaque" has appeared in the XVI centurythanks to the famous healer Swiss-German descent Paracelsus, who called all the stones and solid deposits formation in tissues and organs. Causes of tartar Paracelsus saw in the use of wine, or rather, in the ingestion of a solid precipitate formed at the bottom of the bottles of wine during prolonged storage. Removal of plaque full of textbooks for dentists, have come down to us from the XIX century. By that time, scientists have believed the presence of white or black plaque harmful to teeth and tried to get rid of it through a variety of special tools. In Russia, such tools have appeared at the beginning of the XX century. Till 1955 supragingival and subgingival plaque is removed only by mechanical means, is now replaced by shovels, excavators, hooks come ultrasound.
Within a few hours after birthmouth newborn populated by a variety of bacteria, protozoa, and even fungi, most of which are opportunistic. They accompany a person throughout life affect his immune system and under certain conditions, cause diseases of the oral cavity.
The maximum number of germs accumulatearound the necks of the teeth and soft plaque. The dental plaque found billions of bacteria that play a special role in the development of caries, gingivitis, periodontitis.
Because soft plaque surrounding the cervixteeth, gradually impregnates the calcium and phosphorus salts formed supragingival dental calculus. Subgingival plaque is formed as a result of the development of gingivitis, the accumulation of the products of inflammation around hidden under the gum of the tooth.
Plaque is formed when the soft plaque on teeth is delayed for a long time.
- At irregular cleansing of teeth.
- When defects oral hygiene, tooth brushing improperly, selecting defective toothbrush or toothpaste, dental floss ignored.
- The predominance of soft food, not conducive tomechanical cleaning of the teeth, eating large amounts of carbohydrates, involved in the formation of dental plaque, the presence of which is the reason for the appearance of tartar.
- Defects occlusal enamel and chewing on one side of the jaw.
- Reduced secretion of saliva.
- When inflammation of the gums (gingivitis) and periodontitis, are the basis for the formation of subgingival plaque.
- In the presence of the mouth of braces, crowns and dentures.
The formation of dental plaque and tartarIt begins 1-2 hours after a thorough cleaning of the teeth. Early microbial plaque is soft and white. However, it is firmly attached to the surface of tooth enamel, mouthwash insufficient only help toothbrush and dental floss.
Almost immediately after settling on the surfacetooth germs begin to build a solid frame "his house" - counter dental plaque. Formed in the process of their metabolic acid dissolves the tooth enamel and causes tooth decay and tartar. The microorganisms multiply rapidly, the plaque grows, acquires a yellowish color, covers the neck of the tooth and gingival sulcus. Significant dimensions of plaque prevent the penetration of oxygen into the plaque, a change in its microbial composition with a predominance of anaerobic bacteria. Impregnation plaque mineral salts contained in the saliva, the solid leading to the formation of tartar.
Gum disease is accompanied by bleeding, oxidized hemoglobin stain solid dental deposits in brown, sometimes black is formed, with a greenish tinge tartar.
Gingival fluid contains toxic substances,formed by the decay of bacteria and tissue, a large number of minerals. Congestion around the roots of teeth products of inflammation and calcification ends with the formation of subgingival stone gradual necrosis of periodontal tissues. Solid dental plaque and gingivitis - causes of periodontitis. The presence of dental calculus may result in loosening and loss of teeth.