- What temperature is normal?
- Hypothermia and its causes
- Hyperthermia and its causes
- Shoot down if the heat?
People are warm-blooded organisms, solifelong "forced" to maintain its temperature to determine the nature of the framework, and regardless of the characteristics of the environment. Only under this condition will be vital processes proceed at the proper level.
The body temperature is measured with a thermometer under themouse, mouth, rectum or ear canal. Since the temperature inside the body is somewhat higher than outside, the measured values differ by 1-5 degrees.
In the measurement in the armpit is considered normal temperature range 35.5-37,4 0FROM.
When the temperature is below 35.2 0With talk of hypothermia if the temperature is above 37.3 0C - about hyperthermia.
If the average temperature in the take underarm 36.6 0C, it will correspond to the temperature in the anus 37.5 0Since, in the mouth - 37.0 0FROM.
human body temperature - vacillates, it varies depending on the time of day, temperature environment, health and existing diseases.
The lowest body temperature is observed in the morning, about 6:00, then it increases to 0,5-1 0C and in the evening reaches the maximum. It is interesting that these oscillations are determined not human level of physical activity, and biological rhythms laid down by nature, according to the daily solar cycles.
If overheating of the body temperature rises and a half degrees, with supercooling - reduced and may fall below 32.2 0C. In most cases, the cooling body to 29.5 0With the person loses consciousness, and at 26.5 0Since most dies. When body temperature rises to 44 0With blood proteins coagulate, and people die from hyperthermia.
In young children, due to the functionalimmature thermoregulation system, body temperature may fluctuate more widely than that of adults. In girls, the temperature level is stabilized to 13-14 years, boys - to 18 years. In adults, women's body temperature by about half a degree higher than that in men it falls in the middle of the menstrual cycle, during ovulation and maximum levels of estradiol, and then increases the time of next menstruation or in case of pregnancy.
Center is the thermoregulation in the brain,in the hypothalamus. At body temperature is influenced by the level of functional activity of the thyroid gland. Thyroid disease and brain tumors - the main causes of long-term and sustained violations of thermoregulation. Hypothermia and hyperthermia lead to disruption of vital processes and can cause death of a person.
Hypothermia, or a drop in body temperature below 35.2 0C is an indication for treatment to the doctor,as well as increased temperature. State accompanied by chilliness, trembling body, weakness, drowsiness, decreased heart rate, impaired motor coordination.
The most common causes of hypothermia:
- chronic fatigue and insomnia,
- violation of the liver and gall bladder, including hepatitis C virus,
- protein metabolism disorders, porphyria, anemia,
- diabetes and hypoglycemia,
- decrease in thyroid function (hypothyroidism), and its decline in hormones that affect the metabolism and activity of thermoregulatory center,
- Temperature Syndrome Wills,
- immunodeficiency, regardless of the reasons for its development,
- pneumonia and sepsis,
- parasitic infections,
- heavy hangover,
- renal and adrenal disease,
- radiation sickness,
- brain tumor
- carbon monoxide poisoning, mercury or other heavy metals.
Hyperthermia, or high body temperature,It may be due to an increase in heat production and in violation of its impact to the environment. The most common condition is accompanied by a maximum voltage of thermoregulatory mechanisms: extension of superficial skin vessels, sweating, rapid breathing and heartbeat. In severe cases, the body temperature reaches 41-42 0C, which leads to heat stroke, heart disorders and dizziness.
Increased body temperature is observed in the following cases:
- in severe muscular work during physical exercise,
- with nervous tension,
- during a visit to a sauna, bath, while taking a hot bath, with long-term exposure to the sun or in a hot room,
- when consuming hot and spicy food,
- in violation of the autonomic nervous system (ESP)
- in some chronic diseases,
- blood disorders and lymphatic system,
- in most dental diseases,
- with occult bleeding,
- in case of poisoning,
- in hyperthyroidism.
Body temperature above 37.0 0With evidence of acute inflammation in the body or a gross violation of the thermoregulatory center of the work.
Heat - a reason for seeking medical help. If the body temperature does not exceed 38 0C, hyperthermia is not for humandanger. Shoot down this temperature is not necessary, because in most cases it is a defensive reaction and helps the body fight infection and inflammation, with the exception, of course, in cases where hyperthermia is caused by other reasons.
If the body temperature is higher than 38 0C, before the arrival of the doctor is necessary to take antipyretic drugs. Follow-up examination will shed light on the causes of hyperthermia and find the right way to solve the problem.
At temperatures above 40 0Since there is a threat to life, in this case should take antipyretic drugs and immediately call an ambulance.
The most difficult hyperthermia transferred to adultdiseases of the cardiovascular system, the elderly and infants. Older children with an increase in body temperature externally may look relatively healthy, but that's no reason to think that hyperthermia is not a danger to them.
Hyperthermia in patients at risk oftenacquires menacing form, accompanied by convulsions, development of heart failure, it is difficult to control and treatment, which is why delay the taking antipyretic medication and call the doctor is not necessary.