Infectious diseases have long been a scourgeall mankind. Even after it was proved that infections caused by pathogenic bacteria, almost a hundred years, there was no good antimicrobial agents. Drugs used for this purpose, different toxicity and low efficiency. Only in the 30 years of this century it was synthesized sulfa drugs, and ten years later - antibiotics. The advent of these drugs has revolutionized medicine - doctors for the first time were able to effectively treat infectious diseases.
From the best of intentions, to cure morefaster, more efficient, doctors prescribed antibacterials, always and everywhere, where there was a hint of infection. But almost immediately there were unexpected problems: bacteria formed a resistance to antibiotics, and the patient has side effects (allergies, dysbiosis). In part, this has contributed to various misconceptions regarding antibacterial drugs.
Although in the medical literature, the term "antibiotic"is often used to refer to all antimicrobial agents, antibiotics are genuine products formed by microorganisms or semi-synthetic methods obtained. In addition to antibiotics, there are fully synthetic antibacterial agents (sulfonamides, nitrofuranovye drugs, etc..). Drugs such as Biseptol, furatsilin, furazolidone, metronidazole, palin, nitroksolin, nevigramon are not antibiotics. They differ from the true mechanisms of antibiotic exposure to microbes, as well as the effectiveness and overall impact on the human body.
This myth is very common, butIt can not be cured with antibiotics and some other viral infections. Viral infections constitute a significant part of respiratory diseases. Most so-called "cold" (ARI) do not require antibiotics or other antibacterial drugs, since they are caused by viruses for which these drugs are ineffective.
Viruses cause diseases such as flu,measles, rubella, chickenpox, mumps (mumps), infectious mononucleosis, hepatitis A, B, C, and others. In these diseases as well as acute respiratory infections, antibiotics can be administered with the appearance of bacterial complications, ie the accession of secondary infection, and the main treatment is medication other groups (immunoglobulin preparations, antiviral agents).
Antibiotics do not work well on such infectious diseases as fungi (yeast-like fungi of the genus Candida that cause thrush, etc.), Protozoa (amoeba, giardia), worms.
Such infectious diseases as diphtheria,botulism, tetanus caused by bacterial toxins, so the main treatment consists in the introduction of antitoxic sera, without which death can occur even against the background of antibacterial therapy.
In certain chronic infections (e.g.pyelonephritis), antibiotics are only in the period of exacerbation, and then used synthetic antibacterials (furagin, nitroksolin, palin, etc.), and herbal medicine.
It is undesirable for antibioticstreatment of intestinal dysbiosis due to the negative impact of these drugs on the normal intestinal microflora and suppression of intestinal immune functions.
Many refuse to accept prescribed by your doctorantibiotics, even in a serious condition. Despite the fact that antibiotics do have some side effects, there are drugs, the purpose of which in parallel with antibiotics as a cover can significantly reduce the risk of complications such as allergies (suprastin, tavegil) or goiter (bifikol, atsilakt). The dependence on antibiotics never formed.
From the appointment of acute infectious diseasesantibiotics often required in pyelonephritis, tonsillitis and pneumonia, as well as in infectious inflammation localized in closed cavities (otitis media, sinusitis, osteomyelitis, abscess, cellulitis). We often prescribe antibiotics to people after surgery - to prevent infections.
Without the use of antibiotics often developSerious complications, such as after antibiotic untreated angina can occur heart disease (rheumatic fever, myocarditis) and kidneys (glomerulonephritis).
Without antibiotic treatment of acute diseases(Pneumonia, sinusitis, and others.) Chronic indolent form of the disease (chronic pneumonia, chronic sinusitis, chronic urinary tract infection).
There are a number of chronic diseases whichsignificantly deteriorate the quality of human life, but treated only with antibiotics. This mycoplasma infection lung yersinioz, chlamydia and some other urogenital infections.
Of course, prescribe antibiotics, the doctor evaluates the indications and contraindications, weighing the expected efficacy and risk of side effects.
Pathogens even very similar clinicalpicture of disease may be very different. Different bacteria have different sensitivity and resistance to various antibiotics. For example, a person ill with staphylococcal pneumonia, and he was helped by penicillin, then he reappeared cough, the cause of which may be mycoplasma, insensitive to the drug penicillin. In this case, penicillin will not help. It should appoint a drug acting on the mycoplasma.
The same antibiotic can not help even whenexactly the same diseases in one and the same person as the bacteria quickly adapt to the antibiotic and the reappointment of it may be they are not afraid. The antibiotic, which has helped with pneumococcal pneumonia in the last year may not work with pneumococcal pneumonia in this year!
Self-medication with antibiotics is fraughtinefficiency due to improper drug selection, the development of side effects due to inaccurate dosing and lack of adequate cover, the development of resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics due to the untimely withdrawal of the drug.
Choosing the right drug helps identifymicrobe and study its sensitivity to antibiotics, but it is not always possible. Even if we know the causative agent and its sensitivity to antibiotics, you need to find a drug that will reach the localization of the microbe in the body. Dose depends on the age, comorbidities and does not always correspond to annotation recommended, as these recommendations are calculated on the average, not individual parameters.
Correctly chosen treatment durationantibiotic is important. Very often, patients self-cancel after 1-2 days antibiotic treatment as soon as it became easier. But the body can not handle itself, the infection will become sluggish, complicated lesions of the heart, kidneys, etc. As a result of the premature cancellation of the antibiotic may appear resistant strains of bacteria to it.
On the other hand, if the antibiotic is taken unnecessarily long, despite the lack of effect, increases the risk of dysbiosis and allergies.
In some cases, self-sulphonamide,such as Biseptol (Bactrim, Septrin) sulfalen, sulfadimezin or other antibacterial drugs leads to allergic reactions or dysbacteriosis even more often than in the treatment with antibiotics. In addition, many synthetic drugs have toxic effects on the liver and kidneys, to sulfonamides quickly develop resistance of microorganisms, and efficiency are greatly inferior to modern antibiotics.
Thus, by antibiotic therapy,including the appointment of antibiotics, should be treated like any other treatment: do not be afraid, and used only under medical supervision, taking into account the indications and contraindications.
Bad medicine does not happen - it happens that they are assigned "not the case" and "out of place" incompetent doctors or self-confident patients and their "friendly helpers."