Most women at least once in their lives experiencedsuch sensations as suddenly appears frequently painful urination and pain in the bladder. This is the most characteristic symptoms of acute cystitis - infectious inflammation in the bladder wall (mainly in the mucosa) - one of the most common urological diseases.
Pathogens most oftenE. coli, staphylococcus, streptococcus and other representatives of conditionally pathogenic flora (bacteria exhibiting its pathogenic properties only under the influence of provoking factors). Often there are cystitis associated with ureaplasma, mycoplasma, chlamydia, trichomonas and fungi of the genus Candida.
- During delivery of the fetus through the birth canal promotionIt leads to disruption of blood flow in the bladder and the small pelvis, which is an additional contributory factor in the occurrence of acute cystitis.
- According to the rules of birth, immediately afterall women giving birth in a bladder catheter, as filled bladder prevents reduction uterine catheter can facilitate entry of the pathogen into the bladder.
- In the first few days after childbirth mayno urge to urinate as a result of compression of the nerves that innervate the bladder during labor. In view of this maternity recommend to empty the bladder every 2 hours. If a young mother forgets about it, it accumulates large amounts of urine, which is also a predisposing factor for bladder inflammation.
- Traditionally, the emergence and exacerbation of cystitisassociated with hypothermia. Indeed, overcooling causes reduction of organism resistance to disease, especially local immune response, resulting in active infection and propagated into the bladder, causing an inflammatory reaction. Supercooled can promote the use of ice packs in the postpartum period. However, we note that the use of ice packs, which stimulates contraction of the uterus after childbirth, as well as bladder catheterization, are essential measures preventing severe complications such as postpartum haemorrhage due to inadequate uterine contractions. When all preventive measures, which will be discussed below, the necessary medical measures do not lead to the emergence of cystitis.
- Immediately after birth, the body of a young mothersignificant changes in hormonal levels (disappearing hormones that support pregnancy) that affect the immune system, local protection mechanisms and is a predisposing factor for the development of cystitis.
- During labor, to a greater or lesser extent, observed blood loss, which reduces the body's defenses.
- Another major factor predisposing to cystitis after birth, is an infection of the vagina during pregnancy, ignoring the recommendations for the treatment of infections.
What are the symptoms of cystitis
Bladder Inflammation appears especiallyall frequent urination. At the same time women are constantly having a strong urge to visit the toilet, which do not correspond to the amount released during this urine. Often, a woman observes the pain at the end of urination, and sometimes blood in the urine. Quite often, the pain (burning sensation, cramps) can accompany the whole act of urination. In this case we speak about the origin of urethritis - inflammation of the urethra. In acute cystitis, pain in the abdomen. In connection with the advent of the unbearable urge to urinate may be a false incontinence - a condition in which the woman feels the urge, but does not have time to run to the toilet. This condition is reversible, it goes after the treatment of the disease.
Under unfavorable conditions for cystitisIt can be complicated. Thus pathogens fall within the kidney, which leads to the development of acute pyelonephritis - nonspecific infectious inflammation pyelocaliceal system and renal parenchyma. Microorganisms may get into the kidney in two ways:
- through the blood vessels (hematogenous path);
- in the development / presence of vesicoureteral reflux - the reverse casting of urine from the bladder into the ureter, kidney - ascending route of infection (called reflux disease - pyelonephritis).
Typical manifestations of acute pyelonephritisis a sudden increase in body temperature to 38-39 degrees and above, accompanied by a "stunning" chills. Often patients complain of pain in the lumbar region, nausea, vomiting. It is important to remember that acute pyelonephritis is an emergency pathology and direct indication for hospitalization. Therefore, even after a single episode of fever before the dates indicated with a fever, occurring against the background of the symptoms of acute cystitis, particularly in the postpartum period, you need to be hospitalized to the hospital for emergency indications.
Diagnosis of cystitis
In most cases, diagnosisacute cystitis is not difficult, because the symptoms of the disease is very specific. However, to confirm the diagnosis is necessary to pass a urine test, which will be identified and an increased number of white blood cells may identify erythrocytes.
To assign the correct antibioticyou must make the microbiological analysis of urine, which allows you to identify the pathogen sensitivity to one or another antibiotic (urine is placed on a special nutrient medium, where there are microorganisms that cause cystitis, then explore the sensitivity of microbes to antibiotics). As an instrumental methods of examination for acute cystitis can be applied ultrasound and cystoscopy (a study in which with the help of a special device - a cystoscope - examine the eye bladder and urethra). However, most of the survey is limited to the study of laboratory data.
It is important that the survey woman suffering from cystitis, passed the tests that would reveal about the state of the vaginal microflora and the presence of infections, sexually transmitted diseases.
For the treatment of cystitis are traditionally used antibiotics and uroseptiki. The doctor will select a drug, the use of which does not preclude breastfeeding.
Also used local therapy, which consistsat instillation, ie introducing into the bladder special solutions containing various drugs, which have antimicrobial activity.
In parallel, the treatment of bacterial vaginosis infections and sexually transmitted infections.
To prevent recurrent episodes of acute cystitis at the first signs of the disease need to visit urologist and gynecologist and have the prescribed treatment in full.
Prevention of cystitis
- There should be no hypothermia, for this while walking with a baby dress for the weather.
- Even during pregnancy, and it is better - to her,should take care of the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases: chronic tonsillitis, dental caries, etc., because of chronic infection sources provoke inflammatory lesions in other organs, including the bladder.
- At the time, and it is better - before pregnancy, it is necessary to cure bacterial vaginosis infection and sexually transmitted.
- To wash after every urination and defecation. If this is not possible, when going to the toilet just wiped up movements from front to back, and in any case, not vice versa.
- Care should be taken so that the chair was a regular, was not constipation as constipation also predispose to cystitis due to impaired circulation in the pelvic organs.
- Change sanitary pads every 2 hours.
- Watch your diet: after childbirth should not eat anything spicy, acidic, fried, spicy, salty, pickled, not to mention alcohol.
Observing these conditions you will ensure not only the prevention of cystitis, and successful breastfeeding.