- What is pyelonephritis? Causes of disease
- Symptoms of acute and chronic pyelonephritis
- Diagnosis of pyelonephritis
- Treatment of pyelonephritis
Imagine billions of tiny pests,intensive breeding in the human body, poisoning it with their waste products and toxins. Defeat infection allocation bodies will lead to serious consequences, affect many processes. This is what happens with pyelonephritis.
What is pyelonephritis? Causes of disease
Pyelonephritis - is an infectious-inflammatorykidney disease, is caused by nonspecific infection. This is the most common pathology of the genitourinary system. In women, the illness is diagnosed much more frequently than men.
The most common illness caused by bacteriaEscherichia coli (85%), Proteus, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ways of infection - with the blood flow and ascending path of the lower urinary tract.
Risk factors for pyelonephritis
A number of states contributes to infection:
- violation of urine outflow due to mechanical constraints (malformations of the genitourinary system, kidney stones, pregnancy, neurological disease, prostate adenoma);
- urologic procedures and interventions;
- immunodeficiency, diabetes mellitus;
- violation of rules of personal hygiene.
Symptoms of acute and chronic pyelonephritis
There are acute and chronic diseases.
Symptoms of acute pyelonephritis
The symptoms of acute inflammation of the kidneys are:
- low back pain of varying severity;
- fever, chills, a sharp increase in temperature to 39-41 ° C;
- nausea, vomiting;
- weakness, dizziness;
- possible dysuria (pain, burning during urination, lower abdominal pain, frequent urge to the bathroom).
Pyelonephritis in children
Acute pyelonephritis can occur in children withprevalence of general symptoms (fever, fever, nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, and weakness) over local (no pain). Often the disease is masked by acute surgical pathology of abdominal organs (intense stomach pain).
Pyelonephritis in older people
With age there is a decrease of all functionsorganism. As a result of the disease in elderly individuals occurs with minimal symptoms. Perhaps the absence of heat and pain. Therefore, unexplained weakness, dizziness, lack of appetite and low-grade fever - an occasion for a thorough examination.
Pyelonephritis in pregnancy
Toward the end of pregnancy, the growing uterus candisrupt the flow of urine, which creates prerequisites for the emergence of so-called gestational pyelonephritis. Due to the physiological reduction of immunity in this period any infection quickly leads to sepsis, gestosis and other serious complications. daily walks, gymnastics are necessary for the prevention of inflammation of the kidneys. Do not lie down and sleep on their backs.
Symptoms of chronic pyelonephritis
Chronic inflammation of the kidneys can occuryears, alternating with periods of exacerbation. Outside of relapse symptoms of the disease are virtually absent. There may be dull aching pain in the lumbar region, frequent urination. Aggravation provoke wet weather, hypothermia, usually in spring and autumn.
Long leads to chronic pyelonephritissclerosis, scarring and proliferation of connective tissue. In the final stage of the disease there is a chronic renal failure. Furthermore, bodies regulate vascular tone, producing special substances. Therefore, chronic pyelonephritis leads to renal hypertension.
Chronic pyelonephritis always provokes the appearance of anemia.
Diagnosis of pyelonephritis
Diagnosis is made on the basis of laboratory and instrumental studies. The main of them are:
- general urine analysis;
- bacteriological examination and urine culture with the definition of sensitivity to antibiotics of infection;
- Ultrasound of the kidneys;
- objective examination of the patient data.
In chronic pyelonephritis for the evaluation functionrenal excretory urography is performed. The method allows to determine the deformation of the renal pelvis organ systems, the presence of scarring and narrowing of the ureters.
Treatment of pyelonephritis
The disease requires mandatory treatment. Antibiotics for inflammation of the kidneys - first-line drugs. Adequate and rational antibiotic therapy in the acute phase of the infection resolves, prevents complications. Without these drugs pathological process in the kidney becomes purulent. The result is a purulent cavity - an abscess. Treatment of complicated pyelonephritis may require surgery and even removal of the affected organ as a whole.