Diagnosis of atherosclerosis is complex andmulti-step process. In general, the diagnosis of atherosclerosis is simple - whether we like it or not, but atherosclerosis have all stepped certain age line without exception. Another thing is to determine the characteristics of the disease in a particular case, to specify the exact place of the location of the pathological process, to establish the severity of the disease and to predict the associated risks - it requires a thorough examination. Diagnosis of atherosclerosis begins at the reception of the family doctor, who may suspect the presence of the disease based on the symptoms and the patient's general inspection data ...
General plan of atherosclerosis diagnosis
atherosclerosis diagnostic plan includes several stages:
Elucidation of the symptoms of the disease and the patient's complaints;
General inspection of the patient;
Establishment of risk factors for atherosclerosis and the possibility of their removal;
Laboratory and instrumental methods of diagnosis to confirm the presence of atherosclerosis, establishing the localization of atherosclerotic plaques, assessment of the state of internal organs.
Elucidation of the symptoms of atherosclerosis is the initial stage of diagnosis, which, of course, yet it is impossible to establish an accurate diagnosis of atherosclerosis.
The main symptoms of atherosclerosis
Symptoms and signs of atherosclerosis depends ondegree and extent of the lesion of blood vessels changes, which in turn determines the state of the internal organs. Thus, the most common symptoms (effects) of atherosclerosis are: pain in the muscles of the legs, occurring when walking, hypertension, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, or the establishment of heart failure, neurological disorders, including cerebral stroke, abdominal angina, kidney failure and so forth. In our other articles on the problem of atherosclerosis of various localization, we have described in detail the various symptoms of atherosclerosis, which arise in the defeat of a portion of the vascular system of the body.
At the doctor's important to mention all thesymptoms and disorders. It is possible that atherosclerosis develops in parallel with other diseases and symptoms you are having is the result of both diseases. Elucidation of the symptoms and complaints of the patient helps the doctor to suspect possible complications of atherosclerosis, or point to the possible location of the disease, which significantly narrows the circle of further examinations.
Examination of the patient
General examination of the patient with atherosclerosis mayto help identify some of the signs that indicate the presence of disease: talc on the skin of the face, abundant growth of hair and body in the ears, loss of hair and nails strain on the legs. These symptoms are malospetsifichnymi though, still deserve attention. Also at the general survey of the patient can be seen various signs of internal organ involvement (presence of edema, weight loss).
General inspection of the patient ends auscultation(Auscultation) and palpation (palpation) of the internal organs, which provide the doctor valuable information about the status of the internal organs of the patient. In favor of atherosclerosis evidenced by such symptoms as: increased pulse on peripheral arteries, identifying systolic murmur while listening to the heart, high blood pressure and so on.
Establishment of atherosclerosis risk factors
Establishment of atherosclerosis risk factors isimportant stage of diagnosis, determining the tactics of the upcoming treatment, which is aimed at eliminating risk factors. atherosclerosis risk factors we have already described in the article "What we know about atherosclerosis." The importance is the identification of hypertension, diabetes, obesity, addictions, and other factors that contribute to accelerated atherosclerosis and occurrence of complications of the disease.
Additional methods of diagnostics
In the diagnosis of atherosclerosis, the following laboratory and instrumental methods of diagnosis:
Determination of lipid metabolism is used for the detection of one of the main factors for atherosclerosis: increasing the concentration of cholesterol in the blood.
X-rays applied todetermining aortic atherosclerosis and its complications. Symptoms of aortic atherosclerosis are: extension and expansion of the shadow of the aorta, aortic expansion windows, calcification of the aorta, aortic aneurysm detection.
To determine the blood circulation disorders in other vessels used angiography - a method in which the X-ray pictures are vessels in the blood after administration of the contrast agent.
Ultrasound examination of vessels helps to determine the presence of vascular atherosclerotic plaque, blood clots or other obstructions in the path of blood flow.
Besides the above described diagnostic methods canuse other more complicated and costly. In each case, the amount of diagnostic methods is determined individually for each patient. Complex diagnostics of atherosclerosis not only helps to establish the presence of disease, but also to determine its characteristics, it is very important to follow the treatment and prevention of complications.