Ateroskleroz - a chronic diseasevessels, which is characterized by the formation in the vessel walls of atherosclerotic plaques (fat storage and proliferation of connective tissue), which narrow and deformed vessels, which in turn is the cause of disorders of blood circulation and internal organ involvement.
The development of atherosclerosis involves manyfactors, metabolic disorders, chronic diseases, age. In this article, we describe the causes of atherosclerosis and factors that accelerate the development of this disease.
Atherosclerosis is a degenerative diseasearterial vessels of the body. When atherosclerosis in the walls of blood vessels (predominantly large arteries) postponed fat and connective tissue grows. Such lesions are called vascular resolution atherosclerotic plaques. Atherosclerotic plaques cause narrowing of blood vessels and lumen of the blood vessel deformation portion, which in turn results in poor circulation of blood in the internal organs.
Why there is atherosclerosis
All risk factors (causes) ofAtherosclerosis can be divided into two main groups: modifiable and modifiable. Immutable causes atherosclerosis - these are the reasons for which it is impossible to provide any medical treatment (age, sex, genetic factors). Modifiable causes atherosclerosis - these are the factors that can be eliminated either by changing the way of life, or by treatment (smoking, diabetes, obesity, disturbance of carbohydrate and fat metabolism, infection).
Atherosclerosis - a process of aging
The risk of atherosclerosis increasessimultaneously with the person's age. The greater the age, the greater the risk of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is often seen as a manifestation of the aging process, as atherosclerotic changes of blood vessels observed in all centenarians certain age line without exception. The risk of developing atherosclerosis significantly increases after 45-50 years. In men develop atherosclerosis 10 years earlier than women and up to 50 years the risk of developing atherosclerosis in a 4 times higher in men than in women. After 50 years, the incidence of atherosclerosis among both men and women is leveled. This is associated with the onset of hormonal changes in women and the disappearance of the protective role of female sex hormones estrogen (estrogen decrease in allocation in menopause).
Genetic predisposition. Myth or reality?
Genetic predisposition is anothermodifiable risk factor for atherosclerosis. Increased risk of atherosclerosis occurs in people whose relatives also suffer from various forms of atherosclerosis. It is believed that genetic (hereditary) predisposition is the reason for the comparative early onset of atherosclerosis (previously 50 years). At the same time, in people over 50 years of hereditary factors play a minor role in the development of atherosclerosis.
Once again, the correct way of life
Sedentary lifestyle (lack of exercise) - isan important factor in the development of atherosclerosis, obesity, hypertension, diabetes. Reduction motor activity leads to disruption in fat and carbohydrate metabolism, which in turn increases the risk of diabetes and atherosclerosis. Arterial hypertension - is an independent factor for the development of atherosclerosis. Against the background of high blood pressure increases the impregnation of the walls of the arteries in fat, which is the initial step in the development of atherosclerotic plaque. In turn, due to changes in the elasticity of the arteries increases the risk of atherosclerosis, hypertension.
Smoking increases the risk of manydiseases of the cardiovascular system, including atherosclerosis. Prolonged 2-3 times smoking increases the risk of developing hypertension, hyperlipidemia, coronary heart disease. The accelerated development of atherosclerosis due to smoking is due to the negative impact of tobacco smoke on blood vessel components.
Diabetes not only gives carbohydrate metabolism, and fat
Diabetes increases the risk ofatherosclerosis 4-7 times. High risk of atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus is due to metabolic disorders of fat (one of the metabolic disorders in diabetes), which is a major factor in the development of atherosclerotic changes of blood vessels. Dyslipidemia (disorders of lipid metabolism) - is the most important factor in the development of atherosclerosis. In the development of atherosclerosis and other diseases of the cardiovascular system is dominated by such violations of fat metabolism such as: high blood levels of cholesterol, atherogenic lipoproteins and triglycerides. Improper diet high in animal fat may be an important factor in accelerating the development of atherosclerosis.
Atherosclerosis as a consequence of infection
The theory of the infectious nature of atherosclerosisIt appeared relatively recently and immediately attracted a lot of attention. Recent studies show that one of the factors in the emergence and rapid progression of atherosclerosis might be chlamydia and cytomegalovirus infection. The argument in favor of this statement is the definition of a high titer of antibodies against these types of infections in the majority of patients with various forms of atherosclerosis.
Knowledge of the causes of atherosclerosisnecessary for the treatment and prevention of this dangerous disease. In terms of prevention are particularly important modifiable factors for atherosclerosis, which can be removed either by correcting the image of the patient's life (sports, proper diet, avoiding harmful habits), or by means of treatment (treatment of diabetes, the treatment of hypertension, correction of fat metabolism) .
Atherosclerosis is only partly a consequence of aging and because the elimination of risk factors for atherosclerosis can greatly facilitate and slow the progression of the disease.
symptoms of atherosclerosis
The symptoms of atherosclerosis are extremely diverse andIt depends on the location and degree of damage to a particular blood vessel. Because atherosclerosis is a global disease of the arteries of the human body at one and the same person at the same time may be affected by several arteries. In this case, the set of symptoms related to the disruption of blood flow will be present in various organs and body parts. In general, symptoms of atherosclerosis superimposed on signs of aging. Because atherosclerosis of arteries certain area appears quite specific symptoms, we describe the various forms of atherosclerosis (atherosclerotic heart disease, cerebral atherosclerosis, atherosclerosis of the lower limbs, atherosclerosis of the abdominal cavity) which offer you to see the relevant articles of our site .