What is diabetes?
Sugar diabetes is associated with metabolic disorders. It is based on insufficient absorption of the body of the Sahara. With this disease, pancreas produces too little insulin hormone. Diabetes can develop in patients with obesity and the elderly, in the latter case it proceeds relatively benign.
Despite the fact that there are currently many drugs that reduce blood sugar, still therapeutic nutrition in diabetes mellitus. When easy and even with medium-sized diabetes, the form of diabetes is required mainly. With a heavy form, therapeutic nutrition needs to be combined with insulin treatment or other drugs.
Nutrition Principles for Diabetes
The diet must be physiologically competent:
- The amount of energy in food should be equal to the loss of the patient's energy
- Balanced admission of proteins, fats, carbohydrates
- eating during the day — 5-6 times
Calculation of food is carried out in bread units. One grain unit is equal to 12 g of glucose. 18-24 bread units in the body, which are distributed in time of receipt as follows: Breakfast 9-10., Lunch 6-7., Second breakfast and afternooner 1-2 units., Dinner 3-4 Ed.
For patients with overweight diabetes, to increase the saturation sense, you need to include in a diet fresh and sauer cabbage, salad, spinach, green peas, cucumbers, tomatoes. To improve the liver function, which significantly suffers from diabetes, it is necessary to introduce cottage cheese, soy, oatmeal into the diet, as well as limit the reception of meat and fish broths and fried dishes.
There are several variants of diets for patients with diabetes mellitus, but at almost home conditions can be used by one (diet number 9), which can be easily adjusted to the treatment of any patient, excluding or adding individual dishes or products.
The diet is allowed to include:
- Bread and bakery products — mainly black bread (200-350 g per day, as directed by the doctor);
- Soups on a vegetable brave, on weak meat and fish broth with a small amount of vegetables (1-2 times a week);
- Meat and poultry dishes (beef, veal, low-fat pork, turkey, rabbit in boiled or dumping form);
- Fish dishes, mainly low-fat (pike perch, cod, pike, Navaga, Sazan, etc. in a boiled or tile form), the fish can be replaced with meat in a ratio of 1.5: 1;
- dishes and garnish of vegetables (solicid green, white cabbage, color, salad, trouser, radishes, cucumbers, zucchini, potatoes, beets, carrots in boiled, cheese and baked form);
- dishes and side dishes from croup, legumes, pasta (in limited quantities, occasionally, while reducing the amount of bread in the diet);
- dishes from eggs (no more than 2 pieces per day in the form of an omelet or schochka, as well as to add to other dishes);
- Sweet dishes, sugar, fruits and berries (sugar for the permission of a doctor), sour and sour-sweet varieties of fruits and berries (Apples Antonovskie, lemons, oranges, red currant, cranberries and others up to 200 g per rare, in the form of compotes on xylitate or sorbitte). By permission, you can use sweet dishes and specially prepared diabetic products;
- Milk, dairy products and dishes. Milk — According to the permission of the doctor, kefir, Prostokvasha (only 1-2 glasses per day), cottage cheese (50-200 g per day) in a natural form or in the form of cottages, cheesemies and puddings;
- sauces and spices, non-smear sauces on a vegetable brave with vinegar, tomato puree, roots, as well as dairy;
- snacks, salads, winegirls, bay non-fat fish (100 g);
- Drinks: Tea with milk, coffee beyond, tomato juice, fruit-berry juices (all liquids along with soup to 5 glasses per day);
- Fats: butter, vegetable oil (only 40 g per day in free and cooking).
The food of the patient diabetes should be rich in vitamins, so it is useful to introduce vitamin carriers in the diet: bakery yeast, beer, wild rose.
It is forbidden to eat: candies, chocolate, confectionery, sdobu, jam, honey, ice cream and other sweets; sharp, spicy, salty and smoked snacks and dishes; Bariums and pork fat; Pepper, mustard; alcoholic beverages; Grapes, bananas, raisins; Sugar is allowed only in small quantities to resolve the doctor.