Mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles - Malaria Malaria Malaria Malaria Malariae Malariae, - Perhaps they were obeyed in 50% of the deaths of people since the Stone Age (except for those who died in the war and from accidents). Every year, only 1.4-2.8 million die south of Sahara from the countries of Africa. Human.
Mosquito A. Gambiae transfers malaria pathogen in Africa, type A. FreeBorni - in North America. Almost 45 kinds of mosquitoes are in India, of them species a. Culicifacies, A. Fluviatilis, A. Minimus, A. Philippinensis, A. STEPHENSI, A. Sundaicus as well as a. Leucosphyrushave suffer malaria pathogens. At the same time, different types are characteristic of different habitats: mosquitoes A. Fluviatilis, A. Minimus is found in the foothills and in the lower zone of the mountains, mosquitoes A. STEPHENSI, A. Sundaicus dwell on the coast, mosquitoes a. Culicifacies and A. Philippinensis are common for plain landscapes. View A. Stephensi and related to him well adapt to habitat changes.
Interesting facts about malaria mosquitoes
The mosquitoes of Anopheles begin to bite with the occurrence of the evening, activating by midnight. They are most active in the morning between 5 - 9.30 hour.
They can fly a few kilometers. At the same time, we will not forget that they are hiding in vehicles, on ships and aircraft, which allows them to move truly for fantastic distances.
The average life expectancy of Komara 2-3 weeks. Under favorable conditions, it can be longer.
In the afternoon, adult mosquitoes are hiding in the house: on the rear walls of furniture, clothing, curtains, in dark and cool corners, from where they fly off with the onset of night in order to bite. To do this, it is necessary to carefully inspect potential asylum mosquitoes and remove clothing into the cabinets that need to carefully close.
Komara Anopheles multiply near the sources of clean water. They begin to actively multiply with the onset of rains, occupying puddles and swamps. A bank with rainwater will be waited as a place of reproduction, so they are so common in the areas of the landfill. Removing the garbage, we deprive mosquitoes of potential reproduction places.
Egg is developing in an adult mosquito in a week.
The advantage of mosquitoes in the fact that they inhabit extensive spaces, and it is very difficult to somehow affect their number, not making serious harm to nature. Recently, scientists have developed a new strategy against mosquitoes, safe for nature. They tried her on salty marches in Florida - a favorite place of breeding mosquitoes. Insects lay eggs into wet swamp soil, but can not put them in water. Therefore, the researchers offered to build the dams around the marshes and pour their surface with water.
American Researcher Helge Zyler, who for two decades spends such studies in Brazil, calculated that in the field for a minute she can catch (or shallow) 17 mosquitoes. Theoretically, a person can be replaced with animals, also attractive for mosquitoes - the best candidate is the pig.
This is malaria
The most dangerous disease on earth is malaria, from which more than 1.5 million dies annually. of people
How to fix the malarious mosquitoes
Biologists of the University of Bat (University of Bath) announced the development of a new method of combating the spread of malaria. But this time is not a new medicine or high-quality diagnosis. Magnical mosquitoes themselves have decided.
To influence mosquito-carriers, scientists decided to resort to a somewhat unusual way to help the Bacteria Wolbachia.
This microbe decided to choose because it is very common and infects up to 80% of insects, including mosquitoes. It is able to change the genital cells of mosquitoes in such a way that the reproduction becomes possible only among infectious mosquitoes. As a result, infectious females give rise to offspring, which is also infected.
Researchers are confident that this bacterium can be modified in such a way that it will make infectious mosquitoes incapable of transmission of malaria plasmodium.
Scientists conducted their research on fruit flies, in which the mechanism of infection is the same as Komarov. Drosophile has discovered two genes that launch fertilization. However, Wolbachia, which turned out to be delayed mosquito eggs, are able to cancel this process.
If the bacterium is modified in such a way that it can turn off the mosquito the ability to transmit the malarious plasmodium, it will turn out that insects with Wolbachia will become safe. Moreover, those infected with this bacterium (and therefore, already nemalarial) mosquitoes can give offspring only when pairing with the same infected (that is, with the same malaria).
It would seem that everything you need is to ensure the spread of Wolbachia among mosquitoes. But here there is one well-known problem, which is also indicated by the head of the research Ben Hith (Ben Heath): «It is difficult to achieve results without a complete understanding of the interaction of the Wolbachia genetic apparatus and the organism of the mosquito».
Other difficulties says Pierre Guillet (Pierre Guillet), a member of the Global World Health Organization (Global Malaria Program). It reminds that the mosquitoes are well adapted to changes in the environment and passed through many forms of natural selection.
«This is a good theory, but I want to warn from too fast adoption of optimistic conclusions», - He warned scientists.
Green-eyed Komar will destroy malaria
British and American scientists brought a mosquito with green eyes, destroying malarious congor. A new kind of mosquito larches more eggs, and the green brilliance of the eye distinguishes it from «Prototype». Biologists claim that it will be the most effective and cheap way to combat malaria.
The results of their work American scientists from the University of Rockefeller and British Biologists from the University of Baltimore published in the Journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
According to Professor Andrei Chrisanti from the Imperial College of London, «The discovery has a huge potential and will be much less expensive by eradicating malaria», From which more than a million people die on the planet every year, ITAR-TASS reports.
Experts say that mosquitoes with an additional genome, knocking on plasmodium attacks (parasitic protozoa, causing malaria), can eventually become a dominant population and oust others, stopping the mass infection of people.
«As far as is known, until today, no one has proven that transgenic mosquitoes are more vitial than ordinary», - In their article, the authors of the study from John Hopkins University in Baltimore. Initially, British scientists were afraid that the parasitic-resistant gene would weaken the mosquitoes created in the laboratories and they will not survive on freedom, reports BBC. But this problem was able to decide: as biologists found out, the modified mosquitoes even live longer and postpone more eggs. But when both types of mosquitoes fed to unimpressed blood, their indicators were about the same.
In the course of the experiments, an equal number of modified and conventional mosquitoes were fed with blood infected malaria mice. Over time, more modified mosquitoes remained alive, and after the ninth generation, about 70% of all the remaining mosquitoes were immune to illness.
Scientists also provided modified mosquitoes with a special genome, which gives green shine in the eyes. This facilitates researchers the task of counting the number of modified and ordinary mosquitoes.
Malaria, transmitted by the simplest organism of Plasmodium, is widespread in some areas of Asia, Africa, Central and South America. The pathogen is transmitted to a man when bite of mosquito genus anophheles. Annually malaria (300 million. man, of them Ooim Million dies. 90% of patients die in Equatorial African countries. There every 30 seconds from malaria one child.
Chemicals against malaria
The British Researcher from the University of Aberdeen created fluid against insects, which makes people invisible for mosquitoes. Professor Jenny Mordyu found out which odors entail insects to man, and which repel. Armed with these data, she created a liquid that turns people into «Invisible» For mosquitoes. Mosquitoes «do not see».
«Our product hides the smell embaring these insects - says Professor Mordyu. - Thus, mosquitoes consider a person like «Dish with blood», which can be found. This is a completely new tool, because in contrast to others, it does not need to be applied to the skin».
New liquid is capable even «Dismant» mosquitoes fly into rooms where people are. The solution is placed in a special device similar to air freshener. Every few minutes, the Deviles automatically highlights the fluid droplets into the atmosphere. Professor Mordev considers the possibility of embedding such devices in homes and cars.